This chapter discusses the estimated civilian casualties during the Battle of the Bulge. An estimated 2,500 civilians were killed in Belgium as a direct or indirect result of the Battle of the Bulge and about 500 in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. Ironically, about one-third of the civilians who died in Belgium were caused by Allied air raids, especially those involving medium and heavy bombers as carried out against towns like St. Vith, Houffalize, Malmedy, and La Roche.
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