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On Jordan’s BanksEmancipation and Its Aftermath in the Ohio River Valley$

Darrel E. Bigham

Print publication date: 2005

Print ISBN-13: 9780813123660

Published to Kentucky Scholarship Online: September 2011

DOI: 10.5810/kentucky/9780813123660.001.0001

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(p.315) Appendix

(p.315) Appendix

Population Tables

Source:
On Jordan’s Banks
Publisher:
University Press of Kentucky

Table 1. Population of Ohio River counties of Kentucky, 1860 316

Table 2. Slaves and slave owners in Kentucky’s Ohio River counties, 1860 318

Table 3. White and black population of towns with 2.500 or more residents, 1860 319

Table 4. Percentage of blacks living in urban areas, Ohio River Valley, 1860 320

Table 5. Population of the Ohio River counties of Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois in 1860 321

Table 6. Black population of the Ohio River counties of Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois, 1870–1880 323

Table 7. Blacks in Kentucky’s Ohio River counties, 1860–1880 325

Table 8. Black populations in the largest Ohio River towns (2,500 or more), 1870 and 1880 327

Table 9. Black population by ward, Ohio River cities, 1870 329

Table 10. Distribution of black population along the Ohio, 1870 and 1880 330

(p.316) (p.317)

Table 1. Population of Ohio River counties of Kentucky, 1860 (east to west)

 

Total

Whites

Blacks

Free blacks

Slaves

Slaves as % of blacks

Slaves as % of total pop.

1. Appalachian

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Boyd

6,044

5,871

173

17

156

90.2

2.6

Greenup

8,760

8,350

410

47

363

88.5

4.1

Lewis

8,361

8,114

247

17

230

93.1

2.8

2. Bluegrass

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mason

18,222

14,065

4,157

385

3,772

90.7

20.7*

Bracken

11,021

10,188

833

83

750

90.0

6.8

Pendleton

10,443

9,975

468

42

424

90.6

4.3

Campbell

20,909

20,705

204

88

116

56.7

0.6

Kenton

25,467

24,815

652

85

567

87.0

2.2

Boone

11,196

9,403

1,793

48

1,745

97.3

15.6*

Gallatin

5,056

4,334

722

14

708

98.1

14.0*

Carroll

6,578

5,491

1,087

42

1,045

96.1

15.9*

Trimble

5,880

5,044

836

5

831

99.4

14.1*

Oldham

7,283

4,815

2,468

37

2,243

90.1

30.8*

Jefferson

89,404

77,093

12,311

2,007

10,304

83.7

11.5

3. Western

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hardin

15,189

12,626

2,563

33

2,530

98.7

16.7*

Meade

8,898

6,944

1,954

22

1,932

98.9

21.7*

Breckinridge

13,236

10,879

2,357

17

2.340

99.3

17.1*

Hancock

6,213

5,382

831

13

818

98.4

13.2

Daviess

15,549

11,958

3,591

76

3,515

97.9

22.7*

Henderson

14,262

8,418

5,844

77

5,767

98.7

40.4*

Union

12,791

9,666

3,125

20

3,105

99.4

24.3*

Crittenden

8,796

7,838

958

19

939

98.0

10.7

Livingston

7,213

5,955

1,258

36

1,222

97.1

16.9*

4. Jackson Purchase

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

McCracken

10,360

8,554

1,806

68

1,738

96.2

16.8*

Ballard

8,692

6,943

1,742

24

1,718

98.6

19.7*

Total

355,823

303,426

52,397

3,322

49,075

93.7

13.8

State total

1,155,689

919,522

236,167

10,684

225,483

95.5

19.5

Regional % of State total

30.8

33.0

22.2

31.1

21.8

 

 

Sources: Marion B. Lucas, A History of Blacks in Kentucky, vol. 1, From Slavery to Segregation, 1760–1891 (Frankfort: Kentucky Historical Society, 1992), xx; Joseph G. Kennedy, Population of the United States in 1860 (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1864), 180–83; Francis A. Walker, A Compendium of the Ninth Census (June 1, 1870) (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1872), 48–52; U.S. Bureau of the Census, Tenth Census, 1880, Statistics of the Population of the United States (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1883), 392–93.

(*) Above the average percentage for Ohio River counties

Note: My definition of regions reflects that of Lucas, History of Blacks in Kentucky, xx. A more complicated description of the state's physiographic regions is found in Lowell H. Harrison and James C. Klotter, A NewHistory of Kentucky (Lexington: Univ. Press of Kentucky, 1997), 22–23. Technically, Hardin, Meade, Breckinridge, and Crittenden counties and parts of Lewis and Livingston lie in the Pennyroyal region, which encloses the “western coal field.” Instead of “Appalachian,” they use “Eastern Coal Field.” Lucas's simpler terminology allows, among other things, for less visually cluttered tables.

(p.318)

Table 2. Slaves and slave owners in Kentucky's Ohio River counties, 1860

 

Slaves

Owners

Average owned

No. owning over 10

No. owning over 20

Appalachian

 

 

 

 

 

Boyd

156

48

3.6

3

0

Bluegrass

 

 

 

 

 

Bracken

750

170

4.4

15

1

Campbell

110

49

2.2

0

0

Jefferson

10,315

2,226

4.6

205

27

Kenton

568

224

2.5

6

1

Mason

3,692

768

4.8

97

11

Trimble

797

175

4.5

14

1

Western

 

 

 

 

 

Daviess

1,768

340

5.2

43

10

Hancock

823

194

4.2

18

5

Henderson

5,856

943

6.2

169

67

Meade

1,932

370

5.2

55

11

Union

2,560

526

5.8

96

24

Purchase

 

 

 

 

 

McCracken

1,738

364

4.8

33

9

Source: Eighth Census, Kentucky Slave Schedules, 1860, National Archives Microfilm Publications, M653, rolls 401–6.

Note: I have listed a representative mix of counties, not all twenty-five.

(p.319)

Table 3. White and black population of towns with 2,500 or more residents, 1860

 

Total population

Percent black

Cincinnati, Ohio

161,044

2.3

Louisville, Ky.

68,033

10.0 (7.2% slave)

Covington, Ky.

16,471

1.7 (1.2% slave)

New Albany, Ind.

12,647

7.5

Evansville, Ind.

11,484

0.8

Newport, Ky.

10,046

0.9 (0.4% slave)

Madison, Ind.*

8,130

3.0

Portsmouth, Ohio

6,268

3.4

Paducah, Ky.

4,590

14.6

Maysville, Ky.

4,160

9.4 (6.1% slave)

Jeffersonville, Ind.

4,020

15.6

Ironton, Ohio

3,691

3.2

Lawrenceburg, Ind.

3,599

0.1

Charlestown, Ind.

3,161

6.2

Aurora, Ind.

2,990

2.4

Sources: Darrel E. Bigham, Towns and Villages of the Lower Ohio (Lexington: Univ. Press of Kentucky, 1998), 255–57; Kennedy, Population of the United States in 1860, 112–28, 182–83, 373–96; Walker, Compendium of the Ninth Census, 166–77.

(*) The Madison total does not include North Madison, annexed after the war. Its total was 938, and 19 blacks lived there.

(p.320)

Table 4. Percentage of blacks living in urban areas, Ohio River Valley, 1860 (east to west)

County

Percent in county residing in places of 2,500 or more population*

Lawrence, Ohio

17.2 (Ironton)

Scioto, Ohio

65.9 (Portsmouth)

Mason, Ky.

9.3 (Maysville)

Hamilton, Ohio

80.4 (Cincinnati)

Campbell, Ky.

44.1 (Newport)

Kenton, Ky.

42.9 (Covington)

Dearborn, Ind.

100.0 (Aurora and Lawrenceburg)

Jefferson, Ind.

51.9 (Madison)

Jefferson, Ky.

55.3 (Louisville)

Clark, Ind.

40.2 (Jeffersonville)

Floyd, Ind.

82.8 (New Albany)

Vanderburgh, Ind.

75.0 (Evansville)

McCracken, Ky.

37.1 (Paducah)

Sources: Lucas, History of Blacks in Kentucky, xx; Kennedy, Population of the United States in 1860, 112–28, 180–83, 182–83, 373–96; Walker,Compendium of the Ninth Census, 48–52, 166–77;Census Bureau, TenthCensus, 1880, Population, 392–93; Eighth Census, Kentucky Slave Schedules, 1860, rolls 401–6; Bigham, Towns and Villages of the Lower Ohio, 255–57.

(*) Includes only counties with one or more towns of 2,500 or more.

(p.321) (p.322)

Table 5. Population of the Ohio River counties of Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois in 1860 (east to west)

 

Total pop.

White

Black

% Black

Ohio

 

 

 

 

Lawrence 1*

23,249

22,564

685

2.9

Scioto 1

24,297

23,974

323

1.3

Adams 1

20,309

20,204

105

0.5

Brown 2

29,958

28,842

1,116

3.7

Clermont 2

33,034

32,201

833

2.5

Hamilton 2

216,410

211,802

4,608

2.1

Regional total/avg. %

347,257

339,587

7,670

2.2

State total/avg. %

2,339,511

2,303,838

36,673

1.6

Indiana

 

 

 

 

Dearborn 2

24,406

24,332

74

3.0

Ohio 2

5,462

5,439

23

0.4

Switzerland 2

12,698

12,656

42

0.3

Jefferson 2

25,036

24,524

512

2.0

Clark 2

20,502

19,982

520

2.5

Floyd 2

20,183

19,426

757

3.8

Harrison 3

18,521

18,407

1,744

7.4

Crawford 3

8,226

8,226

0

0

Perry 3

11,847

11,842

3

0

Spencer 3

14,556

14,554

2

0

Warrick 3

13,261

13,242

19

0.1

Vanderburgh 3

20,552

20,425

128

0.6

Posey 3

16,167

16,031

136

0.8

Regional total/avg. %

211,417

209,086

3,960

1.9

State total/avg. %

1,350,428

1,383,710

11,719

0.9

 

Total pop.

White

Black

% Blac

Illinois

 

 

 

 

Gallatin 3

8,055

7,629

426

5.3

Hardin 3

3,759

3,704

55

1.5

Pope 3

6,742

6,546

196

2.9

Massac 3

6,213

6,101

112

1.8

Pulaski 4

3,943

3,904

39

1.0v

Alexander 4

4,707

4,652

55

1.2

Regional total/avg. %

33,419

32,536

883

2.6

State total/avg.%

1,711,951

1,704,291

7,660

0.4

Sources: Kennedy, Population of the United States in 1860, 78–85, 102–3, 112–13, 128–30, 373–83. See also Census of 1860, Geospatial and Statistical Data Center, Univ. of Virginia Library, Historical Census Data Browser, online, http://fisher.lib. virginia.edu/census (March 30, 2005), cited hereafter as U.S. Census Browser.

(*) Numbers after counties denote region of adjoining Kentucky counties: 1=Appalachian, 2=Bluegrass, 3=Western Kentucky, 4=Jackson Purchase.

() Exceeds average for the state. In Ohio, 21.1% of the state's blacks lived along the Ohio. In Indiana and Illinois, the percentages were, respectively, 33.8 and 11.5.

(p.323) (p.324)

Table 6. Black population of the Ohio River counties of Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois, 1870–1880 (east to west)

 

Black pop. 1860

1870 pop.

Black

% Black

% Increase (decrease)

1880 pop.

Black

% Black

% Increase (decrease)

Ohio

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lawrence

685

31,361

1,241

4

81

39,068

11,246

3

0

Scioto

323

29,302

1,013

4

214

33,511

1,159

4

14

Adams

105

20,750

373

2

255

24,005

343

1

(8)

Brown

1,116

30,802

2,067

7

85

32,911

2,316

7

12

Clermont

833

34,267

1,829

5

96

36,713

1,817

5

12

Hamilton

4,608

260,366

7,432

3

61

313,374

10,533

3

43

Indiana

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dearborn

74

24,116

58

0

(22)

26,671

57

0

(2)

Ohio

23

6,537

189

3

722

5,563

205

0

9

Switzerland

42

12,134

121

1

188

13,336

214

2

77

Jefferson

512

29,741

1,105

4

116

25,977

944

4

(15)

Clark

520

24,70

1,970

8

279

28,610

2,536

9

29

Floyd

757

23,300

1,462

6

93

24,590

1,552

6

6

Harrison

114

19,913

349

2

206

21,326

350

2

0

Crawford

0

9,851

3

0

0

12,356

2

0

(33)

Perry

3

14,801

150

1

4,900

16,997

208

1

39

Spencer

2

17,998

949

5

47,350

22,122

1,492

7

57

Warrick

19

17,653

487

3

2,463

20,162

619

3

27

Vanderburgh

128

33,145

2,151

7

1,581

42,193

3,843

9

79

Posey

136

19, 185

564

3

315

20,857

955

5

69

Illinois

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gallatin

426

11,134

612

6

44

12,861

675

5

10

Hardin

55

5,113

89

2

62

6,024

164

3

84

Pope

196

11,426

471

4

140

13,256

570

4

21

Massac

112

9,581

956

10

754

10,443

1,703

16

78

Pulaski

39

8,752

2,394

27

6,039

9,507

3,270

34

37

Alexander

55

10,564

2,296

22

4,075

14,808

4,568

21

99

Total

10,883

685,568

30,131

4

177

827,241

41,341

4

37

Sources: Censuses of 1870 and 1880, at U.S. Census Browser.

(p.325) (p.326)

Table 7. Blacks in Kentucky's Ohio River counties, 1860–1880 (east to west)

 

1860

1870

1880

 

 

No. of Blacks, 1870

% of Total

% Increase (decrease)

No. of Blacks, 1880

% of Total

% Increase (decrease)

1. Appalachian

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Boyd

180

291

4

62

556

5

90

Greenup

410

461

4

12

439

3

(5)

Lewis

264

228

3

(14)

229

2

0

2. Bluegrass

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mason

4,542

3,582

25

(21)

4,392

21

23

Bracken

833

636

6

(24)

816

6

28

Pendleton

468

641

5

37

780

5

22

Campbell

204

282

1

38

441

12

56

Kenton

652

1,657

5

154

2,528

6

53

Boone

1,841

1,012

11

(45)

1,232

10

22

Gallatin

722

600

13

(17)

647

13

8

Carroll

1,087

540

10

(50)

771

9

42

Trimble

836

456

9

(45)

577

8

22

Oldham

2,468

2,810

31

14

2,211

29

(21)

Jefferson

12,311

19,146

20

56

25,595

18

34

3. Western

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hardin

2,563

2,276

17

(11)

3,282

15

44

Meade

1,954

1,294

16

(26)

1,274

12

(2)

Breckinridge

2,357

1,682

14

(29)

2,204

13

90

Hancock

831

729

12

(12)

803

9

10

Daviess

3,591

3,603

12

0

4.854

18

23

Henderson

5,844

5,990

32

5

7,572

31

21

Union

3,125

2,574

23

(18)

3,163

18

23

Crittenden

958

809

9

(16)

1,151

10

33

Livingston

1,258

1,052

15

(16)

1,034

11

(2)

4. Jackson Purchase

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

McCracken

1,806

3,289

31

82

4,383

27

33

Ballard

1,742

1,477

13

(15)

1,725

12

17

Total

52,397

57,117

72,659

% of state total

22.2

25.7

26.8

Region % increase

 

 

 

8

 

 

29

Sources: Censuses of 1860, 1870, and 1880, at U.S. Census Browser.

(p.327) (p.328)

Table 8. Black populations in the largest Ohio River towns (2,500 or more), 1870 and 1880 (east to west)

 

1870

1880

 

Number

% of town pop.

% in county

Number

% of town pop.

% in county

Ohio

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ironton

306

5

25

769

9

60

Portsmouth

870

5

86

969

9

84

Cincinnati

5,896

3

79

8,131

3

77

Indiana

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lawrenceburg

25

0

43

19

0

33

Aurora

4

0

7

0

0

0

Madison*

346

3

31

454

5

48

Jeffersonville

802

11

41

1,262

13

50

New Albany

862

6

59

1,331

8

86

Evansville

1,427

7

66

2,712

9

71

Mount Vernon

238

8

42

437

12

46

Illinois

 

 

 

 

 

 

Metropolis

293

12

31

534

20

31

Cairo

1,849

30

81

3,349

37

73

Kentucky

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ashland

46

1

22

170

3

31

Maysville

681

14

19

876

17

20

Newport

122

1

43

313

2

71

Covington

1,075

4

65

1,788

6

71

Louisville

14,956

15

78

20,905

17

82

Owensboro

654

19

18

1,564

25

32

Henderson

1,489

36

25

2,025

38

27

Paducah

2,001

29

61

2,593

32

59

Sources: U.S. Bureau of the Census, Ninth Census, 1870, The Statistics of the Population of the United States (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1872), 85–96, 108–30, 147–53, 226–40, 285–96; U.S. Bureau of the Census, Tenth Census, 1880, Report of the Social Statistics of Cities, pt. 2, Southern and Western States (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1887), 111–34, 344–404, 437; U.S. Bureau of the Census, Tenth Census, 1880, Statistics of the Population of the United States (June 1, 1880) (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1883), 130–40, 148–55, 185–96, 285–98, 417.

(*) Madison totals for 1870 exclude North Madison, which had 1,007 residents, none of whom was black. It became part of Madison in the following decade. In 1870, Kentucky towns accounted for about 66% of African Americans residing in river settlements. Ten years later, the proportion had dropped to 60%.

Notes: Percentages are rounded to the nearest whole number. A percentage 〈 0.5 is entered as 0.

Totals from the population schedules that I hand-tabulated sometimes differ from those listed in the printed census. I have used the figures from the latter whenever there is a variation.

(p.329)

Table 9. Black population by ward, Ohio River cities, 1870 (east to west)

 

Ward with most blacks

Number of blacks

% Black

% of city total

Ironton

3

169

13

55

Portsmouth

4

530

22

61

Cincinnati

13

1,092

15

19

Madison

6

176

9

51

Jeffersonville

1

365

15

46

New Albany

5

322

13

27

Louisville

10

2,225

20

15

Evansville

1

415

15

29

Sources: Census Bureau, Ninth Census, 1870, Population, 122–30, 226–40; George C. Wright, Life behind a Veil: Blacks in Louisville, Kentucky, 1865–1930 (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State Univ. Press, 1985), 111.

(p.330)

Table 10. Distribution of black population along the Ohio, 1870 and 1880

 

1870

1880

 

Number

% of state total

County with most blacks

County blacks as a % of state total *

Number

% of state total

County with most blacks

County blacks as % of state total

Ohio

13,755

22

Hamilton (7,452)

12

17,414

22

Hamilton (10,533)

13

Indiana

9,558

39

Vanderburgh (2,151)

9

12,977

33

Vanderburgh (3,843)

10

Illinois

6,818

24

Pulaski** (2,394)

8

10,959

24

Alexander (4,568)

10

Kentucky

57,717

27

Jefferson (19,146)

9

72,659

27

Jefferson (25,595)

9

Sources: Censuses of 1860, 1870, and 1880, at U.S. Census Browser.

(*) The total black population for the fifty counties in 1870 was 84,250, and in 1880 it was 114,000. Hence, Jefferson County had nearly 25% of that population in 1870 and slightly less than 25% ten years later. Hamilton County accounted for about 10% in both censuses.

(**) Alexander County was a close second in 1870. The two counties constituted 17% of blacks in 1870 and about 20% in 1880.