The Warsaw Rising of 1944 during World War II has been called the “archetypal model of urban guerrilla warfare”. After the Nazis quashed the Warsaw Ghetto uprising in 1941, many of the surviving members of the Jewish Fighting Organization and several dissident groups decided to join the Home Army when it attacked a retreating German army in Warsaw in August 1944. Despite being totally unprepared and woefully ill-equipped, the Home Army managed to hold out for several weeks, with help from Warsaw residents, including women and children, who performed such tasks as carrying ammunition, preparing meals and caring for the wounded. In October 1944, under orders from General Bor, about 15,400 AK members surrendered, but not before much of the city have been destroyed by heavy artillery. Meanwhile, Russia's Red Army, which was just east of Warsaw during the uprising, stood idly by, providing the impetus for the Cold War. Shortly after, Josef Stalin replaced the Polish government in exile in London with the “Lublin government”, which later agreed to Soviet annexations of prewar Polish territories.
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