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Constructing Affirmative ActionThe Struggle for Equal Employment Opportunity$
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David Hamilton Golland

Print publication date: 2011

Print ISBN-13: 9780813129976

Published to Kentucky Scholarship Online: September 2011

DOI: 10.5810/kentucky/9780813129976.001.0001

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Becoming the Urban Crisis, 1961–1963

Becoming the Urban Crisis, 1961–1963

(p.35) Chapter 2 Becoming the Urban Crisis, 1961–1963
Constructing Affirmative Action

David Hamilton Golland

University Press of Kentucky

Maxwell C. Stanford and Stanley Daniels were African Americans who had gone to a Philadelphia school construction site demonstration in order to document what the NAACP intended to be a peaceful protest against the discrimination exercised by local construction unions. Because of the local union control imposed in the hiring process, skilled black construction workers were not hired to be a part of the school construction, as with other construction projects that were funded by the city. Blacks were employed in jobs referred to as “trowel trades” as those did not require much or any skill at all. Although the hiring policies saw the shift from exclusivity to tokenism, the economic downturn in the early 1960s showed how tokenism fell short. This chapter illustrates how, through legislation and the enforcement of executive officers, civil rights advocates convinced Kennedy's administration to provide equal opportunity for employment.

Keywords:   construction workers, NAACP, discrimination, construction unions, hiring process, black workers, legislation, executive officers, employment opportunity

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