This chapter defines three levels of warfare—strategy, tactics, and operations—by tracing varying and often contradictory definitions of these terms throughout history, beginning in classical Greece and ending with modern German theorists. Although these terms are often used interchangeably, it is critical to distinguish between them in order to understand the real-world movement of armed forces. The chapter offers the following definitions as representative of world war thinking: strategy is the long-term plan for achieving a favorable, often political, outcome; tactics is the general command and control of military assets in space and time; and operations are specific, independent military actions taken in the field.
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