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The Myth and Reality of German WarfareOperational Thinking from Moltke the Elder to Heusinger$

Gerhard P. Gross

Print publication date: 2016

Print ISBN-13: 9780813168371

Published to Kentucky Scholarship Online: January 2017

DOI: 10.5810/kentucky/9780813168371.001.0001

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(p.395) Index

(p.395) Index

Source:
The Myth and Reality of German Warfare
Publisher:
University Press of Kentucky

Military units are listed at the beginning of the index in numerical and then alphabetical order. Page numbers in italics refer to illustrations and information in their captions. The abbreviation “pl.” in bold refers to maps that appear on color plates at the center of the book.

First Air Fleet (Germany), 195
First Army (German Reich), 83, 100, 104, 324n3
First Army (Prussia), 46–47
First Army (Russia), 102
Panzer Group Two, 217
Second Air Fleet (Germany), 224
Second Army (German Reich), 81, 83, 100, 104
Second Army (Prussia), 46–47
Second Army (Russia), 102
Panzer Group Three, 217
Third Army (German Reich), 81, 100
Third Army (Soviet Union), 346n107
3rd Cavalry Division (Germany), 137
Third Panzer Army (Germany), 237
Fourth Army (Austria-Hungary), 113
Fourth Army (German Reich), 81
Fourth Panzer Army (Germany), 230
Fifth Army (German Reich), 81
Sixth Army (France), 100
Sixth Army (Germany), 81, 221–22, 244
Sixth Army (Japan), 213
VI Army Corps (Germany), 177–78
6th Infantry Division (Germany), 137
Seventh Army (German Reich), 83
VI Air Corps (Germany), 251
Eighth Army (German Reich), 83, 101–3
8th Cavalry Division (German Reich), 327n36
Ninth Army (German Reich), 116
Tenth Army (Germany), 195
Tenth Army (Soviet Union), 346n107
Eleventh Army (German Reich), 113
XI Army Corps (German Reich), 326–27n36
11th Bavarian Infantry Division (Germany), 352n196
Twelfth Army (Germany), 211
Sixteenth Army (Germany), 231
Eighteenth Army (Germany), 205, 207, 251
54th Infantry Division (German Reich), 328n51
147th Infantry Regiment (German Reich), 329n67
Army Group A (Germany), 200, 202, 203
Army Group B (Germany), 202, 298–99
Army Group C (Germany), 202
Army Group Center (Germany), 217, 219, 220, 232, 235, 244, 346n103
Army Group North (Germany), 193, 194–95, 207, 210–11, 217, 218, 219, 251–52
Army Group South (Germany), 193, 194–95, 211, 217–18, 222, 227–30
Army of the Elbe (Prussia), 46–47
absolute war, 42–43, 162, 185, 247–48, 302, 336n106
Adam, Wilhelm, 136
Adenauer, Konrad, 19, 263, 267
Afflerbach, Holger, 325n21
Afghanistan, 223;
Soviet invasion of, 1–2
Africa Corps (Germany), 210, 223
aircraft, 89, 119, 138, 183, 191, 214
air forces, 15, 143, 161, 276
(p.396) air power, 272
air superiority, 254
air support, 236
Allgemeines Truppenamt.See German Troop Office
Alps, 291
American Civil War (1861–1865), 62
annihilation:
battle of, 42, 70–72, 225;
in Blitzkrieg, 214;
definitions, 246–47;
France Campaign (1940) and, 199–200, 202;
in interwar operational doctrine, 150, 151, 152, 153–54, 162–63, 167;
as operational thought element, 87, 295–96;
Operation BARBAROSSA as war of, 246–53, 295;
racial, 206, 259, 353n226;
Red Army strategy of, 273;
in Schlieffen’s operational thinking, 86–87, 95, 96;
Schlieffen vs. Bernhardi, 66–67;
strategy of, 60
anti-Semitism, 247, 252–53, 353n226
antitank weaponry, 232, 298
Antwerp (Belgium), 100
A-Plan, 157
Ardennes, 100, 199
Ardennes Offensive (1944), 231, 236, 244
area defense, 329n69
Aristotle, 43
armored doctrine, 338n146, 339n148
Army Command (Heeresleitung), 140, 142
Army Regulation H.Dv. 100/100 Truppenführung, 3
Army Supreme Command (Oberste Heeresleitung; OHL):
establishment of, 108;
Falkenhayn as chief of, 110–12, 332n10;
Hindenburg/Ludendorff as co-chiefs of, 112–13, 297;
mobile defense and, 297;
operational reserve of, 329n80;
Operations Department I, 134;
patriotic education efforts of, 299;
post-WWI debate over German defeat and, 134, 332n10;
structural leadership deficiencies of, 108, 113–14, 257, 326n33;
WWI command role shifts and, 328n59;
WWI end strategy lacking, 128–29;
WWI two-front war scenario faced by, 101;
WWI Western Front breakthrough and, 119–20, 122–24;
WWI Western Front developments as viewed by, 100
Arras (France), 123
artillery, 88, 110–12, 119, 127–28, 129, 169, 232, 253
attack, 63–65;
in Blitzkrieg, 214;
flank, 292;
in interwar operational doctrine, 166–67, 184, 339n161;
mobile, 133;
as operational thought element, 87, 295–96;
pincer, 192–93, 195, 209, 210, 281;
primacy of, 184;
in Schlieffen’s operational thinking, 87, 95;
speed differences in, 204
attrition, war of:
avoidance of, 99, 191–92, 290–91;
during Franco-Prussian War, 48;
Friedrich I and, 60;
in interwar operational doctrine, 139, 149, 151, 164, 332–33n27;
Moltke Plan and, 110;
offensive operations as solution to, 290–91, 296;
people’s war and, 48–49, 151;
politics and avoidance of, 55;
in post-WWI operational doctrine, 300;
in Schlieffen’s operational thinking, 68, 87, 90, 96, 99, 183;
as strategy, 60–61, 266, 273;
two-front war and, 59, 68;
as unwinnable, 90, 96, 183, 191–92;
WWI as, 119–20, 124, 132, 134, 138, 191–92, 209;
during WWI, 205, 206, 209, 222, 246, 256, 290–91
“Aufgaben der Wehrmacht, Die” (directive;Groener), 158
Aus der Gedankenwerkstatt des (p.397) deutschen Generalstabes (Foerster), 331n8
Austria:
in interwar operational doctrine, 175;
Moltke the Elder deployment planning against (1871–1888), 316n79;
in Schlieffen Plan, 86;
Seven Years’ War (1754–1763), 49
Austria-Hungary:
Dual Alliance with (1879), 19, 51, 79, 80;
German geostrategic position and, 19, 57;
in German operational planning, 324n8;
German two-front war planning and, 59, 60;
in Schlieffen’s operational thinking, 91–92;
during WWI, 102–3, 113, 116
Austro-Hungarian Army, 102–3, 113, 116, 117–18, 125
Austro-Hungarian General Staff, 324n8
Austro-Prussian War (1866), 23–24, 35, 37, 46–47, pl. 1
authoritarianism, 149–50
autocracy, 139–40
automatic weapons, 87–88, 115
Avranches (France), 236
Baku (Soviet Union), 209
Balck, William, 64
Balkans, 131
Balkans Campaign (1941), 210, 211
Balkan Wars, 62
Baltic Islands, 128, 327n39
Baltic Sea, 206, 268
Baltic States, 205, 211, 218
“Basic Structure of the Panzer and Panzergrenadier Division 1945,” 349n162
battle, 40–41;
of annihilation, 42, 70–72, 225;
Kesselschlacht (cauldron battle), 213–14;
post-WWI views of, 145–46;
surprise in, 319n50
battle group tactics, 143
Bayerlein, Fritz, 229
Beck, Ludwig, 4, 17;
Blitzkrieg concept and, 192;
Czech operational plans of, 176–77, 192;
December Program of, 163–64;
doctrinal regulations authored by, 8, 160;
as General Staff chief, 171;
German WWI defeat predicted by, 189;
Guderian vs., 172;
Hitler vs., 238, 303;
resignation of, 187, 302, 303, 343n46, 356n24;
SA vs., 337n114;
senior-level organizational conflict and, 180, 182, 340n180;
tank operational doctrine and, 172–73;
as Troop Office chief, 19, 20–21, 162, 163, 337n114
Becker, Wilhelm, 209
“Bedeutung des Alpengebietes im Fall eines kriegerischen Ost-West Konflikts, Die” (Heusinger), 266
Belfort (France), 58
Belgian Army, 100
Belgium:
France Campaign (1940) and, 199;
German atrocities in, during WWI, 104, 325–26n27;
German geostrategic position and, 51, 58;
Moltke Plan and, 16;
in Schlieffen’s operational thinking, 83, 96
Benelux countries, 199, 201
Berenhorst, Heinrich von, 11
Berlin, geostrategic position of, 58
Bernhardi, Friedrich von:
annihilation as viewed by, 71;
breakthrough as viewed by, 120;
combat superiority as viewed by, 65, 318n32;
“operations” as used by, 8;
Schlieffen vs., 66–67, 83, 318n36;
tanks as viewed by, 167;
as technophobe, 87;
in two-front war debate, 59–60, 63, 64, 65, 66–67
Bessarabia, 205
“Bewegliche Truppenkörper” (Guderian), 167–68
Bialystok-Minsk, Battle of (1941), 217, 346n107
Bismarck, Otto von, 19, 33, 49–50, 59
(p.398) blame, personalization of:
for WWI defeat, 110, 134–38, 139, 178, 184, 256;
for WWI defeat, 256, 259, 260–61, 290
Blank, Theodor, 285
Blank Office, 263, 269, 276
Blitzkrieg:
coining of term, 189–90;
as comprehensive concept, 186, 189–92, 214;
failure of, 220, 297;
France Campaign (1940), 189, 199–204, 253;
Operation BARBAROSSA as, 212, 214, 220, 297;
Poland Campaign (1939), 189, 192–98, 253;
research on, 341n1, 341n3;
structural limitations affecting, 253–54
Blitzkrieg Legend (Frieser), 341n1, 343n48
blockades, 68, 99, 125, 206–9, 327n38
Blomberg, Werner von, 170;
dismissal of, 181;
Groener vs., 157, 335n91;
post-WWI operational planning of, 175–76, 181;
Soviet visit of, 274;
as Troop Office T-1 chief, 155, 335n91;
as War Minister, 175–76;
as Wehrmacht commander-in-chief, 178, 181
Blomberg-Fritsch Affair (1938), 181, 187
Blume, Wilhelm von, 28, 59–60, 72, 90
Blumentritt, Günther, 192
Bock, Fedor von, 217, 218, 220, 346n103, 352n192, 352n196
Boer War, 62
Boetticher, Friedrich von, 5, 331n6
Boguslawski, Alfred von, 59–60, 61–62, 95
Bohemia, 175
Bohemia, Prussian invasion of (1866), 39, 46–47
Bolshevism, 124–25, 215, 217, 247, 251
Bonin, Bogislaw von, 264, 269–70, 357nn41–42
Boog, Horst, 165
border warfare, 149, 334n64
bourgeoisie, 313n19
Brand, Dieter, 5
Brauchitsch, Walther von:
centralized command principle of, 218;
dismissal of, 220–21, 239, 241;
Hitler and, 211;
leadership deficiencies of, 238, 239;
Operation BARBAROSSA and, 206, 211, 249, 252;
Schlieffen and, 161;
SS war crimes and, 249;
two-front war as viewed by, 192
breakthrough, 119–28, 139, 165, 167, 223–24, 329n71
Brest-Litovsk (Poland), 192
Britain, Battle of (1940), 204
British Army, 100;
logistics and, 90;
tanks of, 167;
during WWI, 123, 124, 125, 126–27
British Army Staff College (Camberley, England), 5
Brockhaus’ Kleines Konversationslexikon, 9, 10
Brose, Eric, 88, 131
Brühl, Friedrich Wilhelm von, 28
Brusilov, Alexei, 328n54
Brusilov offensive (1916), 116, 118, 328n54, 329n67
Bulgaria, 114
Bulgarian Army, 117–18, 125
Bülow, Heinrich von, 11, 14, 15
Bülow, Karl von, 104, 326n29
Bundesluftwaffe, 277, 280, 281, 287–88, 292–93, 355–56n21
Bundeswehr:
brigade structure in, 281;
competition within, 280, 281, 292–93;
directive command/control procedure in, 39, 280;
establishment of, 264, 270, 277, 278;
leadership of, as former Wehrmacht officers, 263–65, 291, 300, 355–56n21;
military buildup of, 278–80;
nuclear defense planning of, 280–90, 292–94;
officer training in, 45, 304–5;
operational focus in, 2, 349n152;
operations (p.399) as defined by, 8;
planning for, 263;
record availability for, 5. See also German Army (Deutsches Heer)
Bundeswehr Command and Staff College (Hamburg), 300, 349n152
Busse, Theodor, 283
cabinet wars, 49
Caemmerer, Rudolf von, 43, 63
Canitz und Dallwitz, Karl Ernst von, 32
Cannae (Schlieffen), 73–74, 174
Cannae, Battle of (216 BC), 73–74, 84, 102, 109, 138, 191, 224;
as battle of defense, 345n91
Carpathian Front, 113
CARTE BLANCHE air force exercise (1955), 277
Caspian Sea, 221
Castling Movement (Rochade), 245
Caucasus, 206, 222, 225, 243, 244, 246, 353n217
cavalry, 115, 130–31, 160
censorship, 191
center of gravity establishment, 96, 214, 245, 254
Champagne (France), 119, 123
chemical warfare, 119
China, Japanese aggression in, 175
Cholitz, Dietrich von, 227
Citino, Robert M., 1
Clausewitz, Carl von, 30;
as absolute war proponent, 42–43;
Brühl’s distortion of, 28;
concentric warfare as viewed by, 36;
defensive orientation of, 63;
on definitions, 7;
envelopment operations as viewed by, 99;
as General War School director, 32;
influence of, 12, 15, 17, 42–43, 71;
as military theorist, 27;
operations as defined by, 14–15;
politics as viewed by, 13, 302, 312n8;
tactics as defined by, 13;
tactics-strategy interdependence as viewed by, 11–12, 15;
unforeseen events as viewed by, 1, 39, 77;
Vom Kriege, 11–12, 17, 28
coalition warfare, 117–18
Cold War, 260, 262, 349n152
Cold War General Defense Plan (GDP), 3
combat superiority, 65–66
combined arms warfare:
air support for, 292–93;
deficiencies of, 198;
development of, 13–14, 184;
doctrinal regulations for, 7–8, 142, 144, 160, 274, 283, 286, 333n35;
during France Campaign (1940), 202;
in interwar operational doctrine, 146, 160–61, 184;
mobile warfare and, 160, 169;
mobility of, 224;
during Poland Campaign (1939), 198;
in post-WWI operational doctrine, 273, 281, 292–93;
Red Army capabilities in, 213, 273;
training in, 198;
during WWI, 297
command and control systems, 5–6, 13;
in Bundeswehr, 280, 292;
doctrinal regulations for, 359n79;
Hitler and, 242–43;
mission-type (Auftragstaktik), 38–40, 60, 77, 78, 104–5, 203, 204, 243, 298, 305;
mobile, 235–36;
Moltke the Elder and individualization of, 38–40, 54;
motorization and, 145;
order-type (Befehlstaktik), 243, 274–75;
post-WWI criticism of, 178, 298;
in post-WWI operational doctrine, 292;
of Red Army, 274–75;
in Schlieffen’s operational thinking, 75–79;
stormtrooper tactics and, 127
communism, 272
Communist Party, 274–75
concentration of effort:
Clausewitz and, 15;
defense and, 173;
defining, 1;
initiative and, 64;
interior lines warfare and, 63, 65, 68;
in interwar operational doctrine, 139, 140, (p.400) 161, 166, 169, 173, 177, 185, 274;
Ludendorff and, 128;
manpower/materiel inferiority and, 23;
in mobile warfare, 165, 166;
in Moltke the Elder’s operational thinking, 41, 42, 46;
Moltke the Younger and, 103;
as operational thought element, 66, 87, 295–96;
in post-WWI operational doctrine, 287;
risks involved in, 65;
in Schlieffen’s operational thinking, 68, 72, 87, 95;
during WWI, 101, 110, 114, 115, 116, 122
concentric warfare, 35–36
conscription, 23, 33, 138, 164, 183, 278–80
Corum, James, 172
Crimean Campaign (1941–1942), 222
cryptography, 228, 236, 351n180
Curzon, George Nathaniel, 311n8
Curzon Line, 19–20, 311n8
Czech Army, 177
Czechoslovakia:
alliance treaties of (1935), 174;
German geostrategic position and, 19;
interwar operational planning involving, 174–77, 181, 187, 192, 239, 341n12
Dardanelles, 267, 291
December Program, 163–64
“deep operations” theory, 273
defense, 142, 160, 173–74, 227;
concentration of effort and, 173;
Hitler’s stand-and-fight orders, 256;
ideology and, 350nn168–69;
in Schlieffen’s operational thinking, 77, 79;
static vs. mobile, 225–26, 297. See also mobile defense
defense-in-depth system, 124
De Gaulle, Charles, 338n146
Deist, Wilhelm, 150, 187
delaying combat, 142, 198, 342n33
Delbrück, Hans, 60–61, 134, 332n13
Denmark, 50, 51, 57–58, 189, 253, 267, 291
departmental egoism, 97–98
deployment directives (Aufmarschanweisungen), 75
deployment plans, 67;
of Moltke the Elder, 51–53, 54, 59;
of Schlieffen, 79–83, 84
Depuy, Trevor N., 1
Desert Storm, 1
deterrence, 293
Dictionnaire de l’académie française, 14
Dieckmann, Wilhelm, 318n39
Dietl, Eduard, 242
Division 59, 281, 286, 293
Dogma of the Battle of Annihilation, The (Wallach), 70, 71, 323n138
Dolchstoss myth, 133, 184
Don (Soviet Union), 221
Donets (Soviet Union), 221, pl. 16
Dual Alliance (1879), 19, 51, 79, 80
D.V.E. No.53 (Grundzüge der höheren Truppenführung), 7, 8
East German Socialist Unity Party (SED), 271
East Prussia, 86, 93, 101, 129;
geostrategic position of, 58
Eckstein, Otto, 346n103
economic warfare, 1, 206–9, 211, 214–15, 221, 248, 255
effort, main. See concentration of effort
egoism, departmental, 97–98
Egypt, 223
Eimannsberger, Ludwig von, 172
Einem, Karl von, 75
El Alamein, Battle of (1942), 223
Engels, Friedrich, 47
England, 199
envelopment operations:
during Austro-Prussian War, 47;
in Blitzkrieg strategy, 190, 191, 193;
breakthrough and, 185, 202, 254;
in Bundeswehr operational thinking, (p.401) 292;
Cannae vs. Leuthen, 72–74, 191;
foraging and, 303;
in interwar operational doctrine, 140, 145, 146, 154, 159, 161, 165, 166, 167, 169, 173, 185;
in Kesselschlacht, 213–14;
maneuver and, 66–67;
in Manstein’s operational thinking, 200–201;
mobile warfare and, 165, 169, 173;
mobility and, 130–31;
in Moltke Plan, 92–93;
in Moltke the Elder’s operational thinking, 40, 53, 295;
motorization and, 89;
as offensive battle characteristic, 99;
as operational thought element, 87, 214, 295–96;
during Operation BARBAROSSA, 211, 213–14, 220, 222, 223–24, 244–45;
during Poland Campaign (1939), 194–95;
in post-WWI operational doctrine, 267, 269, 287, 292;
in Schlieffen’s operational thinking, 66–67, 70–72, 84–86, 87, 95, 120, 321n99;
in Soviet operational doctrine, 274;
tactics and, 301, 305;
during WWI, 89, 113–14, 116–17, 130–31, 219
Epinal (France), 58
Erfurth, Waldemar, 133, 165
Erinnerungen eines Soldaten (Guderian), 260
“Erlass über die Ausübung der Kriegsgerichtsbarkeit” (Operation BARBAROSSA doctrinal regulation), 248
Europäische Sicherheit (military periodical), 261
Europe:
military force and foreign policy in, 302;
post-WWI geostrategic situation of, 19–20
European Defense Community, 263, 270
Exercise ST. LOUIS (USA), 288
Falkenhausen, August Philipp von, 10
Falkenhausen, Ludwig von, 66
Falkenhayn, Erich von, 107;
Central Powers offensive (1915) and, 113–14;
defensive doctrine of, 226, 297;
as General Staff chief, 108, 110;
negotiated solution as objective of, 122;
as Ninth Army commander, 116;
as OHL chief, 110–12, 123–24, 332n10;
OHL vs., 328n59;
as Palestine commander-in-chief, 328n62;
Panzer divisions increased by, 345n88;
pincer attacks rejected by, 192–93;
post-WWI criticism of, 134, 138, 290, 332n10;
as Prussian War Minister, 108;
resignation of, 112, 124;
Romania Campaign (1916–1917), 116–17;
Russian capabilities as viewed by, 327n40;
Verdun (1916), 123–24;
WWI role shifts and, 328n59
Fall BLAU, 222, 244
Fall GELB, 201, 239
Fall GRÜN, 175–76
Fall KORFANTY, 158
Fall KUHL, 324n3
Fall OTTO, 175
Fall PILSUDSKI, 158
Fall ROT, 175, 202
Fall WEISS, 192, 194
famine, 125, 206–9
fascism, 259, 272
Federation of German Officers, 242
Feldherr wider Willen, Der (Groener), 331n6
Felleckner, Stefan, 3
Field Service Regulations (Red Army), 272, 274
fire and maneuver tactics, 13, 40–42, 53–54, 174
fire effect, 120–21, 329n71
firepower, 190–91;
tanks and, 174
Flak gun, 232
Flanders, 112, 119, 199
Flexible Response, 3
Foerster, Wolfgang, 261, 323n142, 331n8
(p.402) Follow-on Forces Attack (FOFA), 3
foraging, 216, 249–50, 255, 303
forces, 23–25, 74–75
Förster, Stig, 2
France:
alliance with Russia, 79;
alliance with Soviet Union, 174;
annihilation strategy of, 71;
fortification system in, 80, 96, 100, 199, 201;
German attack on (1914), 99–101;
German geostrategic position and, 19, 58;
in interwar operational doctrine, 156–57, 174–75;
Moltke Plan and, 16, 92–95;
Moltke the Elder deployment planning against (1871–1888), 51–53, 316nn79–80;
preemptive wars launched by, 50;
pre-WWI mobilization, 69;
railroad infrastructure in, 79;
in Schlieffen’s operational thinking, 69, 79–83, 91–92, 96;
Seven Years’ War (1754–1763), 49;
War Plan XVI of, 322n123;
West German rearmament as viewed by, 262–63, 269;
WWI force size of, 24
France Campaign (1940):
as Blitzkrieg, 189, 199–204, 253;
map, pl. 12;
motorization rate in, 191, 196–98, 254;
operations plan lacking for, 196;
Panzer commanders in, 218;
redeployments following, 205
François, Hermann von, 203
Franco-Prussian War (1870–1871):
Battle of Sedan (1870), 35, 41, 47–49;
casualties in, 41;
logistics during, 89;
map, pl. 2;
“March Separately, Strike Combined” concept applied during, 35;
people’s war during, 42, 48–49, 54, 72;
Prussian Army size during, 34;
Prussian-German deployment for, 37
Franc-tireurs, 48, 158, 326n27
Fremdwörter-Duden (1997), 10
French Army, 80, 100;
in Schlieffen Plan, 86–87;
size of, 33;
during WWI, 123, 126–27
French Revolution, 11, 27
Freytag-Loringhoven, Hugo von, 73
Friedrich I (“the Great”;
king of Prussia):
concentric warfare and, 35;
at Leuthen (1757), 24, 65, 74;
logistics and, 89, 131;
military historical debates over strategy of, 60, 61;
military leadership structure of (roi connétable), 302;
multi-front wars conducted by, 51;
mythology surrounding, 65;
political/military power concentration of, 182;
preemptive wars launched by, 49, 50;
“presumed self-defense” (Putativnotwehr) concept of, 248;
at Rossbach (1757), 74;
Schlieffen and, 74, 89, 120
Frieser, Karl-Heinz, 200, 231, 244, 341n1, 343n48
Fritsch, Werner von, 171, 174, 181, 187
Fromm, Friedrich, 164, 168, 207
Frontiers, Battle of the (1914), 100, 103
fuel shortages, 199, 237
Führer Directive No. 21, 210–11
Führer Directive No. 32, 223
Führer Directive No. 41, 221
Führer Headquarters, 208, 351n180
Führer Order “General Tasks for the Defense,” 226–27
Führer Principle (Führerprinzip), 242
“Führer State,” 183
Führung eines Angriffskrieges gegen die Tschechoslowakie einschliesslich Aufmarsch (written exercise), 177
Führung und Gefecht der verbundenen Waffen (F.u.G.; operations manual), 142
Fuller, J. F. C., 338n146
Gackenholz, Hermann, 95
(p.403) Galicia, 53, 324n8
Galicia, Battle of (1914), 102–3, 113
Gallwitz, Max von, 114, 327–28nn49–50
“Gedanken über den Krieg der Zukunft” (lecture;
Stülpnagel), 148
Gehlen Organization, 264
General Army Office, 164
General Staff rides:
East, 69, 80;
during interwar period, 146, 159, 160, 162, 172–73, 176–78, 192, 193–94, 196, 202;
under Moltke the Elder, 45;
during post-WWI period, 287;
in Prussian General Staff system, 39;
records of, 70, 318n39;
reintroduction of (1987), 3;
under Schlieffen, 67, 70, 80–81, 82, 83, 91, 95, 101;
as training tool, 45, 146;
“General Tasks for the Defense” (Führer Order), 226–27
General War School (Allgemeine Kriegsschule), 29–32
Geneva Disarmament Conference (1932–1934), 337n112
German Admiralty Staff, 105, 128, 326nn32–33, 330n97
German Armored Forces, 164
German Army, 324–25n9;
“Black Day of” (1918), 129;
Fritsch as commander-in-chief of, 171;
leadership deficiencies of, 97;
logistics and, 89–90;
mobile attack doctrine of, 127;
mobility of, 130–31, 134;
motorization rate in, 87–89, 253–54, 330n91, 345–46n94;
officer assignments in, 240–41;
operational capabilities of, 1;
Russian Army vs., 324–25n9;
Schlieffen and reorganization of, 78–79;
tactical capabilites of, 1;
as technophobic, 131;
training deficiencies of, 299;
as two-speed army, 221, 225, 253–54, 299–300;
War History Research Institute, 261;
WWI casualties suffered by, 330n96;
German Army (Deutsches Heer):
in combined arms warfare, 292–93;
doctrinal regulations of, 281–87, 293–94;
establishment of, 277;
forward defenses of, 277–78, 289;
leadership philosophy of, 278;
military buildup of, 281;
nuclear defense planning of, 282
German Army Archives, 191
German Army Armament, 207
German Army Command, 137, 178, 182
German Army High Command (Oberkommando des Heeres; OKH), 182;
centralized command principle of, 218;
France Campaign (1940), 200;
Hitler vs., 219, 221–22, 237–39;
National Socialism and, 249–50, 255;
OKW vs., 182–83, 209, 256;
Operation BARBAROSSA, 206, 210, 218, 219, 247, 248, 249–50, 255;
Operations Department, 219;
Poland Campaign (1939), 195, 206;
training programs ordered by, 198
German Army in the East, 221, 245
German Army Weapons Office, 337n119
German Democratic Republic (GDR), 19, 259–60, 261, 268–69, 291
German Foreign Office, 158
German General Staff, 253;
breakthrough concept and, 122;
Bundeswehr leadership as former officers in, 263–65;
clandestine resurgence of, 148;
classical influence on, 17;
debates within, 95–96;
Deployment Department, (p.404) 75;
expansion of, 75, 76;
Falkenhayn as chief of, 108;
Foreign Armies Division, 175;
France Campaign planning, 201–2;
geostrategic decisions of, 18–19, 311n3;
Halder as chief of, 343n46, 356n24;
historical research on, 315n60;
Hitler vs., 240–42;
leadership deficiencies of, 97–98, 105–8, 203–4, 245–46;
logistics and, 215;
maps of (Generalstabskarten), 18;
Military History Division, 27;
military history works of, 60–62;
Moltke the Younger as chief of, 73, 75, 92, 105–8, 106, 132, 134;
mythology surrounding, 55, 78–79, 95–96;
Nazi-era organizational conflict and, 178–83;
Nazi-era organization of, 179;
Nazi-era war concepts of, 165–67;
officer training in, 45, 75;
officer war experience in, 240–41;
OKW vs., 186–87;
operational history study in, 2;
operational influence of, 151;
Operations Division, 4, 205, 238, 243–45, 263–64, 290, 291;
Organizational Division, 168;
planning/operational leadership role of, 43–45, 54–55, 75–79;
political vs. military leadership in, 301–3;
post-WWI criticism of, 332n13;
post-WWI disbanding of, 138, 140;
preemptive war rejected by, 49–50;
Railway Department, 75, 88, 93, 132;
rearmament under, 164–65;
record availability for, 5;
Russian Army underestimated by, 101, 218–19;
Schlieffen as chief of, 67, 75–79, 76, 132, 321n83;
Schlieffen Plan and, 72;
Schlieffen tradition in, 325n24;
size of, 321n83;
staff rides of, 3, 45;
Troop Office, 19, 20;
Troop Office redesignated as (1935), 164;
two-front war planning by, 58–59;
War History Division, 73;
War Ministry vs., 65–66;
wars of attrition avoided by, 191–92;
Wehrmacht war games and, 337n119. See also Prussian General Staff
German High Seas Fleet, 125, 128, 327n38
German Imperial Naval Office, 326n33
German Military Cabinet, 55, 78
German Naval Command, 137, 178, 182
German Naval Directorate, 355–56n21
German Navy, 3–4, 97, 105, 128, 132, 186, 196, 207, 326n32, 327n38, 330n97, 337n115
German-Polish Non-Aggression Pact (1934), 174
German Reich:
alliance with Austria-Hungary, 19, 51, 79, 80;
annihilation strategy of, 71–72;
constitution of, 132;
establishment of (1871), 19, 35, 44, 51, 74, 295;
foreign policy of, 296, 302;
geostrategic position of, 18–19, 51, 57–58, 63–64, 74, 85 map, 295–96;
labor unrest in, 125;
military dictionaries of, 10;
military language of, 10;
railroad networks in, 37 map, 115;
resource base of, 134, 164, 183;
structural leadership deficiencies of, 105–8;
WWI force size of, 24;
WWI naval blockade of, 99, 206–9, 327n38
German Supreme Command in the East (Oberost), 112, 113–14
German Troop Office, 144, 146;
casualty expectations of, 334n64;
as clandestine General Staff, 148;
doctrinal regulations of, 160–62, 335n74;
establishment of (1920), 140;
Foreign Armies Division, 166;
mobile warfare debate in, 154–55;
redesignation of, as General Staff (1935), 164;
Section T-1, 152, 153;
Section T-2, 335n74;
Section T-4, 152;
staff rides of, 159, 176, 177, 192, (p.405) 341n12;
war games of, 154, 155–57, 159–60;
wars of attrition avoided by, 191–92
German War Cabinet, 178, 340n180
German War Ministry, 55, 65–66, 74–75, 78, 88, 97, 132
German War Office, 132
Germany, Federal Republic of, 19;
geostrategic position of, 266, 291;
as NATO glacis, 262;
as NATO member, 277, 280, 291–92;
nuclear defense planning of, 276, 277–90, 292–94;
occupation zones, 262–63;
operational defense planning of, 267–71, 275–77, 289, 291–92;
rearmament of, 261, 262–63, 276;
Wehrmacht reappraisal in, 259–62
Gessler, Otto, 137
Gestapo, 264
Gesterding, Joachim Schwatlo, 287
Geyer, Michael, 3, 151, 155, 156
Gibraltar, 223
Giehrl, Hermann, 88
Goebbels, Joseph, 170, 217, 241–42, 336n106, 352nn202–3
Golling, Ernst, 259
Goltz, Colmar von der, 61–62, 63, 64, 65, 95;
“operations” as used by, 8;
Schlieffen vs., 83;
in two-front war debate, 60
Göring, Hermann, 180
Gorlice-Tarnów Offensive (1915), 113, 123
Graf Schlieffen und der Weltkrieg (Foerster), 331n8
Grand Headquarters, 108, 326n33
Great Britain:
annihilation strategy of, 71;
conventional war planning of, 293;
German offensive plans against, 223;
German “peace approach” rejected by, 205;
Operation BARBAROSSA and, 206, 221, 247;
Operation SELÖWE and, 204;
preemptive wars launched by, 50;
in Schlieffen’s operational thinking, 92;
as sea power, 23;
West German rearmament as viewed by, 263;
WWI entered by, 196, 341n14
Great General Staff. See German General Staff
Great Power politics, 138, 141, 142, 183, 189, 211, 295, 303
Greiner, Helmuth, 318n39
Groener, Wilhelm, 132, 134, 136, 157–59, 178, 185, 331n6
Grosse Generalstab.See German General Staff
Grundsätze der freien Operation, 300
Grundzüge der höheren Truppenführung (Hierl), 144–46, 152
Guards Reserve Corps (German Reich), 326–27n36
Guderian, Heinz, 4, 17;
Beck vs., 172;
dismissal of, 352n192;
France Campaign (1940), 203, 228, 343n56;
influences on, 338n146;
memoirs of, 211, 260;
military writings of, 167–68, 298;
Operation BARBAROSSA, 211, 217, 218;
as rapid mobile force advocate, 297;
tank operational use promoted by, 167–69, 172, 339n148;
training of, 343n56
guerrilla warfare, 48, 149, 150, 334n64
Haesler, Gottlieb von, 83
Hague Convention of Land Warfare, 149
Hahlweg, Werner, 28
Halder, Franz:
as Artillery General, 208;
on delaying combat, 342n33;
“demotorization” program ordered by, 199;
dismissed as General Staff chief, 222, 242;
France Campaign (1940), 200, 201, 202;
as General Staff chief, 343n46, 356n24;
Hitler vs., 209, 211–12, 219, 238–39, 243;
leadership deficiencies of, 217, 223;
logistics and, 215;
Manstein vs., 200, (p.406) 201, 261, 343n46, 356n24;
OKW vs., 209;
Operation BARBAROSSA and, 204–5, 206, 209–10, 211, 217, 218, 221, 344n68;
Poland Campaign map maneuver exercise conducted by, 193–94;
post-WWI writings of, 260;
on Soviet counteroffensive, 220;
war diary kept by, 206, 219, 247, 342n33
Hammerstein-Equord, Kurt von, 137, 155, 159, 335n91
Handbuch der neuzeitlichen Wehrwissenschaft (1939), 10
Handbuch für Heer und Flotte, 10
Handwörterbuch der gesamten Militärwissenschaft (1879), 10
Hart, Basil Liddell, 172, 338n146
H.Dv. 100/1 (Truppenführung der Bundeswehr), 8, 283–84, 286–87, 293–94, 359n80
H.Dv. 100/2 (Führungsgrundsätze des Heeres im Atomkrieg), 283, 284–86
H.Dv. 130/20 (Die Führung des Grenadier-Regiment), 350n168
H.Dv. 130/20 (The National Socialist Leadership), 235
H.Dv. 300 (Truppenführung), 8, 160–61, 283–84
H.Dv. 487 (Führung und Gefecht der verbundenen Waffen), 7–8, 142, 144, 160, 274, 283, 333n35
Herbst, Ludolf, 341n3
Herders Conversations-Lexikon, 9
Heusinger, Adolf:
as Bundeswehr chief of staff, 4, 264, 265, 269, 285, 356n29;
as General Staff Operations Division chief, 4, 219, 238, 243–44;
Hitler assassination plot and, 264;
Hitler’s military abilities as viewed by, 243;
military career of, 264, 265;
as NATO Military Committee chair, 288;
nuclear defense planning of, 280–81, 288–90, 292, 293;
operational thinking of, 265–71, 275, 276–77, 278, 291;
on Operation BARBAROSSA objectives, 219;
“operations” as used by, 358n72;
opposition to, 277;
post-WWI writings of, 260, 266, 267;
retirement of, 4
Heye, Wilhelm, 137
Hierl, Konstantin, 144–46, 152
Hillgruber, Andreas, 341n3
“Himmeroder Denkschrift” (memorandum; Heusinger), 267
Himmler, Heinrich, 249
Hindenburg, Paul von:
Brusilov offensive (1916), 329n67;
command achievements of, 109;
defense as viewed by, 125;
as Eighth Army commander, 102;
envelopment operations unsuccessful, 109, 115;
Falkenhayn vs., 114, 124;
as General Staff chief, 116, 124;
Łódź (1914), 109;
maneuver warfare calculations of, 115;
Masurian Lakes (1914), 109;
as OHL chief, 297;
OHL vs., 328n59;
post-WWI criticism of, 134;
Romania Campaign (1916–1917), 116;
space/time factors overlooked by, 223;
staff of, 107;
strategic center of gravity decisions, 112–13;
Tannenberg (1914), 108, 109;
WWI role shifts and, 328n59
Hindenburg Program, 127
Hiroshima (Japan), US atomic bombing of (1945), 292
Hitler, Adolf, 170, 207, 299;
assassination attempt against (1944), 242, 264, 303, 351n180;
eastern offensive plans of, 176;
German encryption system and, 351n180;
military buildup ordered by, 163;
“peace approach” to Britain rejected, 205;
racial ideology of, 247, 251–52, 290, 353n226;
seizure of power (1933), 162, 178, 185;
staff of, 208, (p.407) 242;
war concepts of, 162–63;
WWI military service of, 240, 297–98, 352n196;
WWI defeat blamed on, 246, 260–61, 290
Hitler, Adolf—as military commander:
Beck vs., 238, 303;
Blitzkrieg strategy promoted by, 190;
centers of gravity shifted by, 245;
command approach of, 242–43;
critics of, 243, 246;
defensive shift of, 225–27, 231–32, 256, 297;
France Campaign (1940), 201, 203, 204, 237;
Führer Directive No. 21, 210–11;
Führer Directive No. 32, 223;
Führer Directive No. 41, 221;
General Staff vs., 240–42;
Halder vs., 209, 211–12, 219, 222, 238–39, 243;
leadership changes, 352n192, 352n203;
leadership deficiencies of, 204, 211–12, 224, 231–32, 246, 352n214;
Manstein vs., 230, 241, 343n48;
military offices accumulated by, 183;
morale appeals of, 232–35;
mythology surrounding, 241;
OKH vs., 219, 221–22, 237–39;
Operation BARBAROSSA, 218, 219–20, 256, 344n68, pl. 15;
Operation BARBAROSSA objectives of, 205–6, 209–10, 221, 238–39, 243, 244, 353n217;
Operation SELÖWE and, 204;
Poland Campaign (1939), 192, 237;
as scapegoat, 246;
senior leadership assignments of, 231;
Soviet Army underestimated by, 219;
space/time as misunderstood by, 243–45;
strategic instinct of, 238, 240, 246;
two-front strategy of, 231, 233 map, 247;
as Wehrmacht commander-in-chief, 181–82, 187, 299;
WWI experience and, 240
Hitler-Stalin Pact (1939), 194
Hoeppner, Ernst von, 352n192
Hoffmann, Max, 107, 327n40
Hohenzollern monarchy, 97
Holocaust, 259, 265, 290
horses, 36, 145, 198, 218, 225, 253, 254, 330n91
Hoth, Hermann, 217, 218
Hötzendorf, Franz Conrad von, 117, 324n8
Hungary Offensive (1944–1945), 237
Hürter, Johannes, 247
India, 223
industrialization, 34, 62, 131, 139
infantry, 160–61, 168, 169, 224, 232, 253
initiative, 214;
concentration of effort and, 64, 65;
as operational thought element, 87, 295–96;
in post-WWI operational doctrine, 292;
in Schlieffen’s operational thinking, 87, 95
Inner-German Border (IGB), 270
“Inner Leadership” philosophy, 278
In Pursuit of Military Excellence (Naveh), 341n1, 343n56
Instruktionen für die höheren Truppenführer (training manual), 120
interior lines warfare, 20–23, 35, 62–63, 65, 66, 68, 96, 295
interwar period:
French occupation of Ruhr during, 148;
German-Soviet military cooperation during, 141, 273–74;
German WWI defeat debated during, 133–39, 166, 178, 290, 331–32nn9–10, 332n13;
military buildup during, 162–74, 185–86, 297, 337n112;
planning/training during, 154–62, 174–78;
senior-level organization during, 178–83, 340n180;
war concepts debate during, 139–54, 183–85
Iraq, 125
Israel, 301
Italy:
alliance with Germany, 210;
East African expansionism of, 175;
post-WWI European defense policy and, (p.408) 267–68;
during WWI, 113, 114, 116, 125
Japan:
China invaded by, 175;
Operation BARBAROSSA and, 205;
US atomic bombing of (1945), 292
Japanese Army, 213
Jews, 247, 252–53
Jodl, Alfred, 182, 191, 236, 241
Johann Hübners Zeitungs- und Conversationslexikon (1826), 8, 9
Joint Service Regulations, 359n79
Jomini, Antoine de, 11, 12, 27, 32
Jünger, Ernst, 333n35
Kaiser Maneuvers, 106, 121
Kammhuber, Josef, 281, 287–88, 355–56n21
Kapp Putsch (1920), 140
Kasernierte Volkspolizei. See People’s Garrison Police (KVP; GDR)
Keegan, John, 352n196, 352n214
Keitel, Wilhelm, 181, 182, 207, 247–48, 341n14
Kennedy, John F., 288
Kershaw, Robert, 239
Kessel, Eberhard, 91, 318n40
Kesselschlacht (cauldron battle), 213–14
key taskings (Schlussaufgaben), 70, 72, 318n39
Khalkh River, Battle of (1939), 213
Kharkov, Battle of (1941), 222
Kharkov, Battle of (1943), 230, 245
Kielmansegg, Johann-Adolf von, 264, 349n152
Kiev (Soviet Union), 209, 210
Kiev, Battle of (1941), 220
Kleist, Ewald von, 231
Kluck, Alexander von, 100, 104, 203, 324n3, 326n29
Kluge, Günther von, 236
Königgrätz, Battle of (1866), 23–24, 35, 41, 46–47, pl. 1
Köpke, Ernst, 119
Köpke, Martin, 83
Korean War (1950–1953), 263
Krafft von Dellmensingen, Konrad, 122, 123
Kraków (Poland), 192
Krauss, Alfred, 60, 62
“Kriegsführung als Problem der Organisation, Die” (memorandum;Keitel), 181, 248
Kriegsgeschichte und Geschichtspolitik (Pöhlmann), 331n7
Küchler, Georg von, 207, 252
Kuhl, Hermann von, 134, 324n3
künftige Krieg nach den Ansichten des Auslandes, Der (C.-H. Stülpnagel), 166–67
Kursk, Battle of (1943), 231, 244
Kutz, Martin, 3, 5, 99, 131, 303
labor unrest, 125, 319n44
Landser (pulp magazine), 290
Landwehr, 32–33
Large Battle Procedures, 232, 298
“Law of Numbers,” 65
Lebensraum, 189, 205, 206, 247, 248, 249–50, 255
Leeb, Wilhelm von, 173–74, 207, 251–52, 339n161, 352n192, 352n196
Lehrmeister des neuzeitlichen Krieges, Der (Boetticher), 331n6
Leipzig, Battle of (1813), 36
Leitlinie für die operative Führung von Landstreitkräften in Mitteleuropa, 3, 300
Leitlinien für die obere Führung im Kriege (doctrinal manual), 144
Lemburg (Poland), 192
Leningrad (Soviet Union), 206, 210, 211, 221
Leningrad, Siege of (1941–1944), 219, 251–52
(p.409) Leuthen, Battle of (1757), 23–24, 74, 84
lexicons, 8–10
Libya, 210
Liège (France), 94
Liège, Battle of (1914), 16, 100
Lindemann, F., 165
Linnebach, Karl, 162
Lithuania, 175
Lloyd, Heinrich von, 11
Locarno, Treaty of (1925), 157
Łódź, Battle of (1914), 109, 112
logistics:
during Franco-Prussian War, 89;
during Operation BARBAROSSA, 198–99, 215–18, 219, 220, 221, 249, 255, 303, 346n103, 347n118;
Schlieffen Plan and, 89–90;
during WWI, 89–90, 130–32, 322n117
Lorraine (France), 93–94, 100, 104
“lost victories” (verlorene Siegen), 48, 133, 256, 260
Ludendorff, Erich von, 131;
absolute war theory of, 185;
defense as viewed by, 125;
as Eighth Army commander, 102;
envelopment operations unsuccessful, 115;
Falkenhayn vs., 114, 124;
as first quartermaster general, 116, 124;
as Hindenburg staff member, 107, 297;
maneuver warfare calculations of, 115;
military writings of, 162, 336n106;
OHL vs., 328n59;
post-WWI criticism of, 134;
reconnaissance assets of, 109;
Romania Campaign (1916–1917), 116;
Schlieffen and, 126, 325n24;
space/time factors overlooked by, 223;
strategic center of gravity decisions, 112–13;
at Tannenberg (1914), 108;
WWI role shifts and, 328n59
Ludwig, M., 165
Luftwaffe, 3–4;
France Campaign (1940), 202;
as independent branch of Wehrmacht, 180;
in interwar operational doctrine, 167, 169, 177;
Milch as general inspector of, 207;
military capabilities of, 196;
Operation BARBAROSSA, 206, 210, 217, 345n81;
“operations” as used by, 165;
Panzer Force supported by, 169;
Poland Campaign (1939), 193–94;
strategic directives issued to, 178
Luftwaffe General Staff, 180
Luftwaffe High Command, 182
Luttwak, Edward N., 1–2, 310n36
Luxembourg, 51, 58, 96
machine guns, 110, 119, 129
Mackensen, August von, 113, 116
Maginot Line, 199, 201, 202
Maizière, Ulrich de, 264, 276–77, 300, 354–55n3
maneuver:
breakthrough and, 122;
fire and, 13, 40–42, 53–54, 174;
in interwar operational thinking, 191;
in Schlieffen’s operational thinking, 95;
tanks and, 174;
two-front war and, 66–67;
during WWI, 110–19, 111 map, 122
manpower/materiel inferiority:
iron will as solution to, 131;
operational planning based on, 295, 296;
rapid wartime decision needed because of, 290–91
Manstein, Erich von, 227, 285;
as Army Group A chief of staff, 200;
as Army Group South commander, 227, 231;
as Beck’s deputy chief of staff, 172, 176;
Bundeswehr service of, 281;
classical influence on, 4, 17;
command approach of, 242;
diary kept by, 196, 341n14;
dismissal of, 352n203;
Eastern Front war crimes and, 256;
Halder vs., 200, 201, 261, 343n46, 356n24;
Hitler vs., 230, 231, 241, 343n48, 352n203;
on Keitel’s disbelief at Allied declarations of (p.410) war, 341n14;
leadership deficiencies of, 245–46;
memoirs of, 260;
mobile operational defense of, 226;
mythology surrounding, 290;
operational successes of, 230, pl. 16;
operational thinking of, 4;
Operation BARBAROSSA, 222, 227–31, 235, 256, 349n152, pl. 16;
post-WWI operational thinking of, 269;
Sickle Cut plan of, 200–201, 222, 245
Mantey, Friedrich von, 323n142
map exercises (Planspiele), 70
“March Separately, Strike Combined” concept, 35–36, 47, 54, 61
Marcks, Erich, 206, 210, 212, 213, 344n68, pl. 13
Marholz, Josef, 5
Marne, Battle of the (1914):
command failures during, 105, 298, 305;
as German defeat, 100, 129;
impact on WWI operations, 220;
map, pl. 7;
post-battle debates, 129;
redeployments affecting, 110;
as Schlieffen Plan failure, 57, 130;
surprise lost in, 103
Marx, Wilhelm, 138
Mason, Timothy, 190
“Massive Retaliation,” 275, 287, 290
Masurian Lakes, Battle of the (1914), 109, 112
Matzky, Gerhard, 166, 337n127
mechanization, 272–73
“Mediterranean Alternative Strategy,” 210
Mediterranean Sea, 267
Megargee, Geoffrey P., 1
Meier-Welcker, Hans, 223
Meinert, Friedrich, 14
Mensch und die Schlacht der Zukunft, Der (Soldan), 147–48
Merkblatt 18b/43 (“Der Sturmangriff. Kriegserfahrungen eines Frontoffiziers von 1917”), 298, 350n165
Messerschmidt, Manfred, 212
Metz-Diedenhofen, 58, 81, 84–86, 93–94, 100
Meuse River, 199, 201, 203
Meyer, Georg, 356n29
Meyers Neues Konversations-Lexikon, 9
Mezières (France), 82, 84
Milch, Erhard, 207
militarism, 2
Militär-Lexikon (1901), 10
Militärwissenschaftliche Rundschau (journal), 133
Militärwochenblatt (journal), 147–48, 299, 333n35, 350n169
military dictionaries, 10
military history, 60–62, 65
military leadership triad, 14, 16
military police, 235
Milward, Alan S., 341n3
mobile defense:
defined, 329n69;
Hitler’s refusal to allow, 226–27, 244, 297;
in interwar operational doctrine, 142–43, 173–74;
in Moltke the Elder’s operational thinking, 41, 52, 59;
in post-WWI operational doctrine, 268–69, 270, 275, 280, 291, 349n152;
training deficiencies in, 297;
US Army concept of, 288;
during WWI, 297;
during WWI, 225–27, 236
mobile warfare:
Blitzkrieg strategy and, 189;
combined arms warfare and, 160, 169;
concentration of effort in, 1, 165, 166;
during Desert Storm, 1;
doctrinal regulations for, 160, 286, 293;
in interwar operational thinking, 133, 142–44, 145, 147, 151, 154, 155, 161, 165, 166, 166–74, 184, 185;
key elements of, 165;
logistics and, 90, 215;
manpower/materiel inferiority and, 226–27;
mobility required for, 130–31;
motorization (p.411) rates and, 196–98;
Napoleon’s use of, 35;
offensive use of, 164;
operational thinking and, 15, 226–27, 245;
people’s war vs., 151, 154;
positional warfare vs., 145;
in post-WWI operational doctrine, 269–70, 281, 283, 286, 296;
in Red Army operational doctrine, 274;
Rommel and, 245;
tank development for, 127, 167–68, 186;
two-front war and, 61, 62;
Wehrmacht and, 155, 255;
during WWI, 127, 130–31, 186, 255;
during WWI, 202–3. See also mobile defense; Panzer Force; tanks
mobility:
Blitzkrieg strategy and, 190–91, 214;
of combined arms warfare, 224;
envelopment operations and, 130–31;
in interwar operational thinking, 133–34, 141, 142, 143–44, 146, 147, 164, 165, 166, 168, 173, 176, 184, 332–33n27;
in KVP, 273;
mobile warfare and, 130–31;
in Moltke Plan, 94–95;
in Moltke the Elder’s operational thinking, 40, 295;
motorization and, 87, 89, 196–97, 213;
as operational thought element, 87, 214, 295–96, 301, 305;
during Operation BARBAROSSA, 213, 218, 220, 221, 224–25;
in post-WWI operational doctrine, 280, 281, 284, 287, 293;
in Schlieffen’s operational thinking, 87, 89;
Sickle Cut plan and, 200–201;
Stormtroop Tactics and, 127;
tanks and, 168, 173;
time pressure and, 122;
in West German defense strategy, 280;
during WWI, 196–97, 236
Model, Walter, 231, 235, 298–99
Molotov, Vyacheslav, 210
Moltke, Helmuth von (the Elder):
as absolute war proponent, 42–43;
Austro-Prussian War (1866), 39, 46–47;
force size led by, 24;
Franco-Prussian War (1870–1871), 47–49;
as General Staff chief, 29, 31, 43–45, 53, 54–55;
legacy of, 4;
military writings of, 5–6, 27–28, 34, 35, 43, 312n2;
mythology surrounding, 65;
100th birthday celebrations, 312n2;
“operations” as used by, 8;
Unification Wars, 24, 31;
Waldersee as successor to, 43;
war history studied by, 45
Moltke, Helmuth von (the Elder)—operational thinking of, 17, 27–33;
during Austro-Prussian War, 46–47;
battle as focus of, 40–42, 53–54;
defensive orientation of, 79;
deployment planning (1871–1888), 51–53, 54, 59, 316nn79–80;
directive command/control, 38–40, 54, 104–5;
elements of, 295–96;
fire and maneuver, 40–42, 47, 53;
during Franco-Prussian War, 47–49, 54;
General Staff role, 43–45, 75;
influence on Poland Campaign (1939), 195;
influence on post-WWI operational doctrine, 151, 153;
influence on Schlieffen, 70, 71;
influences on, 29–32, 35–36, 42–43;
Jomini vs., 35;
“March Separately, Strike Combined” concept, 35–36, 47, 54, 61;
military writing reinterpretation possibilities, 27–28;
Napoleon vs., 61;
operational objective in, 42;
people’s war and, 54;
politics and, 42–43, 312n8;
preemptive war, 49–51;
railroads and, 36–38, 37 map, 53;
Russia and, 213, 219;
Schlieffen vs., 28–29, 95;
structuralization, 53;
telegraph and, 36, 38, 53;
two-front war and, 62–63, 122
(p.412) Moltke, Helmuth von (the Younger), 57;
death of, 134;
envelopment operations and, 121;
Falkenhayn as successor to, 108, 110;
as General Staff chief, 73, 75, 92, 105–8, 106, 132, 134;
influence on post-WWI operational doctrine, 150;
Kaiser Maneuvers ordered by, 121;
leadership deficiencies of, 95, 104, 134, 204, 290;
mobilization schedules of, 58, 317n6, 326–27n36;
post-WWI criticism of, 134, 331n9;
as Prussian General Staff chief, 105;
as scapegoat, 110, 134, 290;
Schlieffen and, 73, 84, 92, 322–23n128, 323n142;
Schlieffen Plan adapted by, 134;
two-front war planning by, 319n46;
during WWI, 101, 102, 324n8;
WWI structural leadership deficiencies and, 108. See also Moltke Plan
Moltke Plan:
deployment plans, 92–95;
failure of, 108, 110, 297;
France Campaign (1940) and, 201;
as German WWI operational plan, 57, 94;
operations as understood in, 16;
Poland Campaign (1939) and, 195;
Schlieffen influence on, 16, 92–93
Mombauer, Annika, 57
Montgomery, Bernard L., 223, 353n221
Moravia, 175
Mörser (howitzer; “Die Dicke Bertha”), 88
Moscow (Soviet Union), 206, 210–11, 251
Moscow, Battle of (1941–1942), 48, 220, 239, 346n103
motorization:
Blitzkrieg strategy and, 190–91;
doctrinal regulations for, 160–61;
during France Campaign (1940), 191, 196–98, 254;
in interwar operational thinking, 145, 154–55, 160–61, 166–67, 174, 333n44;
mobility and, 87, 89;
in Moltke the Elder’s operational thinking, 214;
during Operation BARBAROSSA, 255;
during Poland Campaign (1939), 191, 194, 254;
rate of, in German Army, 87–89, 253–54, 255, 330n91;
in Red Army, 272–73, 278, 357n50;
Schlieffen and, 87, 89;
in Wehrmacht, 216, 254;
WWI rates of, 87–89, 330n91, 345–46n94
Müller, Klaus-Jürgen, 163, 172
Müller-Hillebrand, Burkhard, 288
Munich Agreement (1938), 177
mutinies, 125
Namibia, German annihilation strategy in (1904–1908), 71–72
Nancy (France), 80, 81, 86
Napoleon, 35, 40–41, 61, 204, 247, 305
Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815), 11, 23–24, 32, 35–36
Narev-Vistula Front, 113
Narew Line, 79, 80
Narew River, 324n8, 329n67
National Committee for a Free Germany, 242, 272, 291
Nationale Volksarmee (NVA; GDR), 273
nationalism, 48–49, 51
National People’s Army (NVA; GDR), 273
National Socialism:
defense and, 350nn168–69;
German liberation from, 259;
Lebensraum ideology of, 189, 248, 249–50, 255;
OKH and, 249–50;
Operation BARBAROSSA and, 209, 239;
primacy of politics and, 314n51;
propaganda of, 198, 225;
racial ideology of, 42, 189, 252–53;
rhetoric of, in Hitler’s decision-making, 232–35, 241;
rise to power (1933), 162, 189;
Naveh, Shimon, 1, 341n1, 343n56
(p.413) Nazi Germany:
alliance with Italy, 210;
conscription in, 164;
declaration of war against US, 221–22;
military buildup in, 162–74, 185–86;
planning/training in, 174–78;
resource base of, 199;
senior-level organization in, 178–83, 186–87;
Soviet pact with (1939), 194;
Western Power declarations of war against (1939), 195, 341n14;
WWI defeat of, 19, 189, 246, 256–57, 259–60, 290, 300;
WWI war plan of, 192
Nazi Party, 163, 180, 190, 271, 299, 352nn202–3. See also National Socialism
needle gun, 47
Nehring, Walther, 168–69
Neidhardt von Gneisenau, August, 32, 35, 38
Neitzel, Sönke, 2–3
Netherlands:
German geostrategic position and, 51, 58;
in Moltke Plan, 93, 94, 201;
Schlieffen Plan and, 199;
in Schlieffen’s operational planning, 82–83, 84, 96;
Sickle Cut plan and, 201;
in Wehrmacht operational planning, 199;
Wilhelm I exiled to, 140
New Military History, 2–3
Normandy invasion (1944), 236
Norstad, Lauris, 288
North African Campaign (1940–1943), 222–23, 225, 229, 244
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), 20, 275–90;
brigade structure in, 280;
Defense College, 288;
forward strategy of, 269;
leadership of, as former General Staff Operations Division officers, 264;
Military Committee, 288;
nuclear strategy of, 275–90, 279, 300;
numerical inferiority of, 275;
SACEUR, 277, 283, 284, 288;
SHAPE, 279, 289;
US role in, 286;
West German admission to, 277, 280, 292;
West Germany as glacis of, 262, 291–92
Norway, 189, 253
nuclear weaponry, 263, 268, 272, 275–90, 292–94
offensives, 63–65, 96
operational:
definitions, 7, 10–11, 14;
Schlieffen’s use of term, 67–68
Operation ALBION, 128, 327n39
operational thinking:
Blitzkrieg and, 214;
classical influence on, 17;
definitions, 7, 15–16;
elements of, 87, 95, 214, 295–96;
forces as factor in, 23–25;
limits of, 96–98, 253–57, 290–91;
mythology surrounding, 47–48, 290;
nuclearization of, 275–90, 292–94, 300–301;
operationalization of, 5;
people’s war and, 48–49, 54;
personnel numerical inferiority and, 33–34;
post-WWI reappraisal of, 261–62;
precedents for, 305–6;
space as factor in, 17–21, 295;
structuralization of, 53;
(p.414) Operation BARBAROSSA, 156;
atrocities committed during, 248–49, 306;
attack speed variations during, 204, 218, 224, 253–54;
as Blitzkrieg, 212, 214, 220, 297;
centers of gravity in, 209, 210, 222;
deployment directive for, 211;
Operation BARBAROSSA (cont.) German attack (1941), 217–20, 345n81;
German defensive shift in, 225–35;
logistical problems during, 215–18, 219, 220, 221, 249, 255, 303, 346n103, 347n118;
maps, pls. 13–16;
mobile warfare during, 345n88;
operational planning for, 206–17, 239, 248, 344n68;
operational weaknesses of, 223–25, 255–57;
revisionist view of, 206;
risks involved in, 248–49;
Soviet counteroffensive (1941), 220–21;
Soviet front, 207;
as war of aggression, 206;
as war of annihilation, 246–53, 295
Operation BLÜCHER, 128, pl. 8
Operation CITADEL, 230–31
Operation GEORGETTE, 128, pl. 8
Operation GNEISENAU, 128, pl. 8
Operation GOERZ, 128, pl. 8
Operation HAGEN, 128
Operation HAMMERSCHLAG, 128, pl. 8
Operation LÜTTICH, 236
Operation MARITA, 210
Operation MARNESCHUTZ, pl. 8
Operation MICHAEL, 127–28, 198, pl. 8
Operation REIMS, pl. 8
operations:
definitions, 7–11, 14–16, 308n3;
Heusinger’s use of term, 358n72;
as interdependent, 16;
Moltke the Elder’s use of term, 28–29;
nuclear weaponry and, 276;
post-WWI reappraisal of, 261–62;
Schlieffen’s use of term, 67–68, 95;
space/time as factor in, 17. See also Fall entries; specific operation
Operation SELÖWE, 204
Operation TOTALIZE, 236
Operation TYPHOON, 220
Operation WESERÜBUNG, 253
Operation YORCK, 128, pl. 8
operative Beweglichkeit eines Heeres und ihre Erfolgsaussichten gegenüber moderner Waffenwirkung, Die (Rabenau), 154–55
Ostkrieg war game, 154
O’Sullivan, Patrick, 311n4
Ottoman Army, 125, 328n62
Ottoman Empire, 114, 117–18, 131, 328n62
Palestine, 125, 328n62
Panzer Experimental Formations, 164
Panzer Leader (Guderian), 260
Panzer units:
Blitzkrieg strategy and, 189–90;
doctrinal regulations for, 293;
during France Campaign (1940), 202, 203, 218;
as independent divisions, 186;
interwar development of, 164;
in interwar operational thinking, 168–69, 172–73, 193;
in KVP, 272;
logistical problems involving, 224–25, 237;
during Operation BARBAROSSA, 213, 217–18, 219, 220, 221, 224–25, 230, 232, 234 map, 235–36, 299;
organizational restructuring of, 349n162;
during Poland Campaign (1939), 195, 198;
in post-WWI operational doctrine, 268, 270, 280, 281, 293;
tank development for, 127;
during WWI, 127
paramilitary forces, 262
Paris (France):
in Schlieffen Plan, 86, 87, 324n3;
during WWI, 100, 103–4
partisan warfare, 1–2, 219, 249
patriotic education, 299
Paulus, Friedrich, 210, 222, 223
“Pentomic Structure,” 281
People’s Garrison Police (KVP; GDR), 271–72, 273
people’s war:
annihilation strategy and, 72, 304;
during Franco-Prussian (p.415) War, 42, 48, 54, 72, 118;
German General Staff and, 55;
in interwar operational thinking, 144, 148–51, 154, 156, 158–59, 162, 184;
mobile warfare vs., 151, 154;
in Moltke Plan, 93, 99;
in Moltke the Elder’s operational thinking, 42, 51–52;
as post-conflict operation, 1–2;
prevention of, 118, 256, 304;
in Schlieffen’s operational thinking, 87, 90;
war of attrition and, 48–49;
during WWI, 99, 256
Pierer’s Universal-Lexikon, 9
pincer attacks, 192–93, 195, 209, 210, 281
Ploiesti oil fields (Romania), 117
Pöhlmann, Markus, 331n7
Poland:
German geostrategic position and, 19;
in interwar operational doctrine, 154, 156–57;
Moltke the Elder deployment planning involving (1871–1888), 52–53, 58;
Russian forces in, 52, 58, 115;
Soviet invasion of (1939), 195
Poland Campaign (1939):
atrocities committed during, 248, 249, 353n226, 353–54n231;
as Blitzkrieg, 189, 192–98, 253;
delaying combat during, 342n33;
map, pl. 11;
motorization rate in, 191, 254;
redeployments following, 205;
tactical/training deficiencies during, 196, 299;
Western Power declarations of war following, 341n14
Polish Army, 193, 194–95
Polish Home Army, 235
Polish-Russian War (1919–1921), 273, 311n8
politics:
as “good,” 314n51;
Great Power, 138, 141, 142;
military leadership vs., 301–3;
in Moltke the Elder’s operational thinking, 43;
people’s war and, 48–49;
preemptive war and, 50;
primacy of, 12–13, 42–43, 162–63, 185, 302, 312n8;
strategy and, 28;
two-front war and, 18, 69
Posen, Barry, 77
positional warfare, 119, 133, 139, 142, 145, 147–48, 160
Potsdam Conference (1945), 19
preemptive war, 49–51, 206
prisoner of war camps, 260, 265, 272
prisoners of war, 295
Prittwitz und Gaffron, Maximilian, 101, 102, 325n19
professionalization, 44
propaganda:
Blitzkrieg strategy and, 189, 197–98, 225;
in interwar operational thinking, 248;
National Socialist, 189, 197–98, 225, 254;
rapid operational success and neglect of, 1;
Russia underestimated through, 119;
Soviet use of, 274;
during WWI, 119, 124
Pruck, Erich, 274
Prussia, 19–20;
constitutional crisis in, 32–33;
geostrategic position of, 42, 46, 51, 74;
military reforms in (1813–1814), 32, 313n19;
population growth of, 33;
railroad networks in, 37 map
Prussian Army:
General Staff of, 31;
Moltke the Elder’s transfer to, 29;
during Napoleonic Wars, 32;
Roon Reforms, 33;
size of, 33–34;
war concepts of, 32
Prussian General Staff:
leadership principle in, 39;
Moltke the Elder as chief of, 29, 31, 34;
Moltke the Elder military writings drafted in, 27–28;
Moltke the Younger as chief of, 105;
planning/operational leadership role of, 43–45;
Railway Section, 36–37;
Survey Division, 311n3
Prussian-German military doctrinal regulations, 7–8
Prussian Kriegsakademie, 39, 45
(p.416) Prussian Military Cabinet, 45
Prussian War Ministry, 29, 44–45
Rabenau, Friedrich von, 154–55, 191
“Race to the Sea” (1914), 100
racial ideology, 213, 215, 255, 259
radio, 236, 351n180
Raeder, Erich, 206, 207
railroads, 89;
German/Prussian network, 37 map;
in interwar operational doctrine, 154–55;
military use of, 36–38, 53;
in Moltke Plan, 93, 94–95;
motorized supply systems vs., 346n102;
Operation BARBAROSSA and, 212–13, 215, 216, 220, 347n118;
in Schlieffen’s operational thinking, 96
Ratzel, Friedrich, 117
Rauchensteiner, Manfried, 5
reconnaissance systems, 89, 236
Red Army:
casualties suffered by, 346nn107–8;
command and control system of, 274–75;
communication lines of, 230;
“deep operations” theory of, 273;
defense capabilities of, 345n88;
doctrinal regulations of, 272, 274;
GDR operational thinking and, 291;
German influence on, 272–75;
German underestimation of, 212, 213, 215, 216–17, 218–19, 223, 257;
military strength of, 212, 223;
motorization rate in, 272–73, 278, 357n50;
Operation BARBAROSSA, 211, 212, 213–14, 217–18, 219, 222, 223–24, 235, 345n81, 345n88, 346nn107–8;
Operation CITADEL, 230–31;
post-WWI motorization level increases of, 272–73;
preparations for German invasion, 205;
Reichswehr cooperation with, 273–74, 306;
Warsaw Uprising (1944), 234 map, 235;
Winter Offensive of (1941), 220–21;
Zhukov as commander-in-chief of, 345n88
Reich Archive:
critics of, 331n9;
General Staff records in, 5;
operational history study in, 2;
Schlieffen research in, 331n8;
Schlieffen School writings in, 331n6;
WWI materials of, 134;
WWI destruction of, 5, 27–28, 67, 91
Reichenau, Walther von, 274
Reichsheer:
deployment areas of, 147;
operational plan of, 144–45, 157;
operational training in, 144, 155–57, 185;
size of, 143, 145, 159, 183, 332n15, 337n112;
Versailles limitations on, 167, 183, 332n15
Reichstag, 78
Reichswehr:
defense capabilities of, 148;
establishment of, 138–39;
Heusinger as member of, 264;
KVP membership and, 271;
manpower/materiel inferiority of, 151, 156–57, 184;
mobility of, 143–44;
record availability for, 5;
Red Army cooperation with, 273–74, 306;
security purposes of, 158–59;
transformed into Wehrmacht, 174
Reichswehr Ministry, 132, 157–58, 181
Reinhardt, Walther, 139, 140, 192
“Revolution der Kriegführung” (Rabenau), 191
Reyher, Karl von, 36
“Richtlinien für das Verhalten der Truppe in Russland” (Operation BARBAROSSA doctrinal regulation), 248
“Richtlinien für die Behandlung politischer Kommissare” (Operation BARBAROSSA doctrinal regulation), 248
Risko-Heer (risk army), 163, 337n115
Ritter, Carl, 32
Ritter, Gerhard, 57, 70, 82, 86, 91, 319n46
Rochade (Castling Movement), 245
roi connétable (king as supreme commander), 302
(p.417) Romania, 114, 175
Romania Campaign (1916–1917), 113, 115–18, 132, 328n52
Romanian Army, 116–17, 217, 222
Rommel, Erwin, 203, 210, 223, 229, 245–46, 343n56, 353n221
Roon, Albrecht von, 33
Rossbach, Battle of (1757), 74
Rostov (Soviet Union), 222
Röttinger, Hans, 281, 287
Royal Navy (GB), 50, 327n38
rubber shortages, 199
Ruhr region (Germany), French occupation of (1923), 148
Rundstedt, Gerd von, 203, 220, 352n192, 352n196
Russia, 223;
alliance with France, 79;
annihilation strategy of, 71;
Carpathian Front of, 113;
Central Powers offensive against (1915), 113–15, 132;
geography of, 212, 213, 223, 255, 297, 299, 304;
German geostrategic position and, 19;
Moltke Plan and, 16, 92–93;
Moltke the Elder deployment planning against (1871–1888), 51–53, 59, 115, 316n80;
Narev-Vistula Front of, 113;
Polish-Russian War (1919–1921), 273;
railroad infrastructure in, 79, 115;
in Schlieffen’s operational thinking, 91–92, 96;
Seven Years’ War (1754–1763), 49;
withdrawal from WWI, 124–25;
WWI offensive of, 100, 101–3. See also Soviet Union
Russian Army, 79, 101;
Brusilov offensive (1916), 116;
Central Powers offensive against (1915), 113–15;
defense capabilities of, 345n88;
Falkenhayn’s assessment of, 327n40;
German view of, as inferior, 101, 103, 113, 114–15, 118–19, 213;
size of, 33, 324–25n9;
WWI achievements of, 114, 327–28n49. See also Red Army
Russian Civil War (1917–1922), 124–25, 251, 273
Russo-Japanese War (1904–1905), 62, 64, 82, 91, 119
Salewski, Michael, 190
Sandrart, Hans-Henning von, 3, 294, 300
Saxony, 46–47, 49
Scandinavia, 267, 291
Scharnhorst, Gerhard von, 30, 32, 35–36, 38, 45
Scherff, Wilhelm von, 61
Schlachterfolg, Der (Schlieffen), 73
Schlagen aus der Nachhand (strike from the rear), 230, 268
Schleicher, Kurt von, 158, 178
Schleswig-Holstein (Germany), 267–68, 291
Schlichting, Sigismund von, 8, 60, 61–62
Schlieffen, Alfred von, 3, 106;
background of, 67;
Bernhardi vs., 66–67, 120;
birth of, 67;
as General Staff chief, 67, 75–79, 132, 321n83;
General Staff rides conducted by, 100, 322–23n128, 324n3;
historical revisionism by, 28, 73;
memorandum of 1905, 2;
military writings of, 5–6, 67, 68, 70, 73–74, 86, 174;
Moltke the Elder and, 4, 312n2;
Moltke the Younger as successor of, 92, 134;
mythology surrounding, 57, 59, 67, 290;
100th birthday celebrations, 323n142;
papers of destroyed, 67, 318nn39–40;
retirement of, 73, 86
Schlieffen, Alfred von—OPERATIONAL THINKING OF, 318–19n43;
battle of annihilation in, 70–72, 150;
breakthrough and, 120–21;
Cannae and, 73–74, 191;
command and control systems in, 75–79;
critics of, 318n36, 331n7;
deployment (p.418) plans, 79–83, 84, 318n39, 319n44, 319n46;
envelopment operations in, 66–67, 70–72, 84–86, 120, 319n46;
force size/quality in, 74–75;
France as focus of, 69;
General Staff role, 75–79;
historical record and evaluation of, 318n40;
historical research on, 331n8;
influence on post-WWI operational doctrine, 146, 147, 148–49, 150, 151, 154–55, 157, 184–85;
influences on, 17;
Leuthen and, 74, 84;
Ludendorff vs., 126;
main elements of, 96;
Moltke the Elder and, 95;
Moltke the Younger vs., 92, 94–95, 322–23n128, 323n142;
“operations” as used by, 8, 54, 57, 67–68, 95;
pincer attacks and, 192–93;
preemptive war and, 50;
publishing of, as war history studies, 67, 68;
reevaluation of, 57, 67;
Schlieffen Plan, 84–91, 85 map;
on surprise, 319n50;
war games, 91–92. See also Schlieffen Plan
Schlieffen Plan:
annihilation strategy in, 72;
breakthrough in, 121;
dilution of, as WWI defeat cause, 133, 184, 324n3;
envelopment operations in, 84–86, 121;
failure of, 57, 130, 297;
France as focus of, 84;
France Campaign (1940) and, 199;
historical debate over, 323n138;
legacy of, 1;
Leuthen as model for, 84;
logistics and, 89–90;
maps, 85, pl. 12;
Moltke Plan influenced by, 16;
Moltke the Younger’s adaptation of, 134;
mythology surrounding, 57, 94;
post-WWI radicalization of, 184–85;
reconnaissance systems and, 89;
reversal of, during WWI, 195–96, 197 map;
Russia and, 213, 219;
technology and, 87–89;
two-front war and, 319n46;
war conclusion absent in, 90–91;
WWI operational failures and, 103–4, 105, 109, 110
Schlieffen School, 78, 83, 134, 331nn6–7
Schneckenburger, Willi, 167
Schörner, Ferdinand, 231, 242, 299
Schülze, Hagen, 17
Schürmann, Paul, 161–62, 308n3
Schutzstaffel (SS), 247, 248–49, 353n226, 353–54n231
Schwerin, Gerhard von, 269
Schwerin Agency, 263. See also Blank Office
Sedan, Battle of (1870), 35, 41, 47–49
Sedan, Battle of (1940), 201–2, 204
Seeckt, Hans von, 135;
as Army Command chief, 140;
on Caucasus region, 353n217;
critics of, 337n127;
doctrinal regulations authored by, 8;
elite military force proposed by, 140–41, 143, 163–64, 166, 185, 337n127;
Groener and, 157;
maneuver warfare and, 191;
motorization and, 333n44;
operational thinking of, 139, 140–44, 146–47, 332–33n27;
as Ottoman Army General Staff chief, 328n62;
retirement of, 140, 155;
as I Army Corps chief of staff, 333n36;
Stülpnagel (J.) vs., 148, 150, 152–54, 184–85;
as I Army Corps chief of staff, 123;
as Troop Office chief, 140;
war concepts of, 152–54;
Western Front breakthrough plan of, 123
Seelow Heights, Battle of the (1945), 350n167
Senff, Hubertus, 339n148
Senger und Etterlin, Ferdinand Maria von, 349n152
Senger und Etterlin, Fridolin von, 345n91
Senger und Etterlin, Gerhard von, 269
Serbia, 114
Sertl, Hans-Peter, 290
(p.419) Seven Years’ War (1754–1763), 19, 23–24, 49, 74
Sickle Cut plan (Sichelschnitt), 200–201, 222, 245
Siegfried Line, 341n14
signals technologies, 21
Smolensk (Soviet Union), 219, 220
Smolensk, Battle of (1941), 218, 346n108
socialism, 133
Sodenstern, Georg von, 177–78, 261–62
Soldan, George, 147–48, 168, 192
Somme, Battle of the (1916), 119
Sonderverbänden (special forces), 166–67
Sonderweg, 5, 44, 72
Soviet Air Force, 206, 217
Soviet-Japanese border conflicts, 213
Soviet Occupation Zone, 262, 271
Soviet Union:
Afghanistan Campaign of, 1–2;
alliance with France, 174;
geography of, 255, 299;
German annihilation strategy against, 72, 246–53;
German economic war against, 206–9, 211, 214–15;
German geostrategic position and, 19–20;
German invasion of (WWI), 156 (see also Operation BARBAROSSA);
German partition plan for, 353n225;
German underestimation of, 223;
in interwar operational doctrine, 174–75;
military-geographical study of, 215;
Nazi pact with (1939), 194, 196;
nuclear capabilities of, 275, 278;
Operation BARBAROSSA objectives concerning, 204–6, 246–53;
Polish-Russian War (1919–1921), 273, 311n8;
post-WWI German military buildup in, 141, 273–74;
post-WWI occupation zone of, 262;
railroad infrastructure in, 209–10;
resource base of, 213;
western border security preparations of, 205;
West German operational planning against, 267–71;
WWI civilian casualties, 252
space and time:
attack and, 64–65;
General Staff and, 43–44, 45;
Hitler’s conception of, 231, 243–45, 256;
in interwar operational thinking, 154;
manpower/materiel inferiority and, 59;
Manstein’s WWI use of, 201, 230;
mobile warfare and, 154;
Moltke Plan and, 16;
Operation BARBAROSSA and, 223, 255, 297;
operations as function of, 10, 17–23, 295–96;
Russia and, 212, 213, 223, 255, 297, 299, 304;
tactics as function of, 14;
technology and, 36–38;
in WWI battles, 109, 255
Spanish Civil War, 175
Spannenkrebs, Walter, 168–69
specialization, 44
speed, 167;
manpower/materiel inferiority and, 290–91;
motorization rates and, 253–54;
as operational thought element, 87;
in Schlieffen’s operational thinking, 87, 95
Speidel, Hans, 265, 276, 281, 285
Speidel, Wilhelm, 195
Sportpalast speech (Goebbels; 1943), 336n106
stab-in-the-back myth (Dolchstoss), 133, 184
staff rides. See General Staff rides
Stalin, Joseph, 274, 351n177
Stalingrad (Soviet Union), 221
Stalingrad, Battle of (1942–1943), 222, 225, 243
steam engine, 36
Stosstrupptaktik (Stormtroop Tactics), 13, 127, 143
St. Quentin, Battle of (1918), 126–28
Strachan, Hew, 90, 190
Strasbourg, 58
Strategie: Eine Studie (Blume), 28
Strategische und militärpolitische Diskussionen, 356n29
(p.420) strategy:
definitions, 11–13, 15, 16, 308n3, 310n36;
as interdependent, 16;
nuclear weaponry and, 276;
Operation BARBAROSSA and, 255–57;
politics and, 28;
post-WWI reappraisal of, 262
Strauss, Franz-Josef, 285, 287
Stülpnagel, Carl-Heinrich von, 8, 166–67, 169, 339n165
Stülpnagel, Joachim von, 135;
absolute war theory of, 185;
as Army Department chief, 148;
Blomberg as successor of, 155;
Groener and, 157;
Hierl vs., 146;
operational thinking of, 139;
Seeckt vs., 148, 150, 152–54, 184–85;
as Troop Office T-1 chief, 152;
war concepts of, 148–54;
winter studies and, 156
Sturmabteilung (SA), 163, 337n114
submarine warfare, 124, 125, 138
Supreme Allied Commander Europe (NATO; SACEUR), 277, 283, 284, 288
Supreme Headquarters, Allied Powers Europe (NATO; SHAPE), 279, 289
surprise:
during Austro-Prussian War, 47;
during Avranches counterattack, 236;
in battle, 70, 319n50;
in Blitzkrieg strategy, 190, 200, 214;
breakthrough concept and, 122, 123, 202;
in Bundeswehr operational thinking, 292;
command and control principle and, 127;
during France Campaign (1940), 203, 213, 254;
in German operational planning, 328n54;
in Goltz’s operational thinking, 64–65;
in interwar operational doctrine, 139, 146, 154, 161, 165, 166, 167, 169, 175, 181, 185, 339n165;
maneuver and, 66;
in Manstein’s operational thinking, 200–201, 230;
mobile warfare and, 165, 185;
in Moltke Plan, 93;
in Moltke the Elder’s operational thinking, 54, 63, 295;
as operational thought element, 87, 295–96;
operational vs. tactical, 103;
during Operation BARBAROSSA, 213, 214, 217, 220, 230;
during Poland Campaign (1939), 254;
in post-WWI operational doctrine, 266, 267, 272, 284, 287, 292, 295;
in Rommel’s operational thinking, 245;
in Schlieffen’s operational thinking, 70, 72, 82–83, 87, 95, 319n50;
in Soviet operational doctrine, 274, 328n54;
tactics and, 301, 305;
during WWI battles, 16, 103–4, 109, 328n54
Sweden, 58
Switzerland, 51, 57
tactics:
definitions, 11, 13–14, 16, 308n3;
as interdependent, 16;
Moltke the Elder’s view of, 28–29;
nuclear weaponry and, 276;
post-WWI reappraisal of, 261–62;
space/time as factor in, 17, 21
Tagliamento region (Italy), 267–68, 291
tanks:
antitank weaponry, 232, 270, 298;
in Blitzkrieg strategy, 214, 225;
clandestine interwar buildup of, 141;
demotorization and, 237;
development of, 127;
doctrinal regulations for, 160–61, 186;
fire and maneuver combined in, 174;
in interwar operational thinking, 139, 140, 144, 145, 147, 160–61, 167–74, 186, 253;
in mobile warfare, 127, 167–68, 186;
numbers of, in Poland Campaign (1939), 194;
in post-WWI operational doctrine, 270, 298;
Red Army units, 227, 230, 235;
technical deficiencies of, 131, 144;
Versailles prohibitions against, 138, 144, 167, 183;
Wehrmacht use of, 193, 237;
during WWI, 191, 194, 199, 202, 221. See also Panzer Force
(p.421) Tannenberg, Battle of (1914):
command during, 203;
as defensive battle, 109, 129;
France campaign and, 16;
as Kesselschlacht, 213;
maps, 234, pl. 5;
mythology surrounding, 102;
as operational success, 108–9, 129, 132;
as strategic defeat, 129;
strategic impact of, 48, 102–3, 109–10, 129
technophobia, 87–89, 131
telegraph, 36, 38, 53
Testament des Grafen Schlieffen, Das (Groener), 331n6
Thionville, 58
Thirty Years’ War (1618–1648), 19
Thomas, Georg, 192, 209
Thucydides, 50
time, 17, 21–23, 36–38, 69, 147, 149
Tirpitz, Alfred von, 326n32, 327n38, 330n97, 337n115
Tobruk, Battle of (1942), 229
Totale Krieg, Der (Ludendorff), 162, 336n106
Toul (France), 58, 81
“Training in Operational Thinking under Consideration of War Experiences Exemplified by Manstein’s Counterattack in the Spring of 1943” (Bundeswehr symposium; 1987), 349n152
transport assets, 255, 345–46n94, 346n100
trench warfare, 119, 122, 123, 127–28, 130, 191, 192, 226, 240, 255, 297
Tröbst, Hans, 329n67
Truppenamt. See German Troop Office
Tuchačevsky, Michail, 273, 274
two-front war, 20–23, 62;
battle of annihilation in, 70–72;
combat superiority and, 65–66;
debate over (Strategiestreit), 59–67;
duration of, 319n46;
force sizes during, 33–34;
geostrategic considerations, 18–22, 57–59;
German lack of plan for, in WWI, 192;
Hitler and, 194, 247;
in interwar operational doctrine, 154–55, 156–57, 185–86;
military history and, 60–62;
in Moltke Plan, 93–94;
Moltke the Elder deployment planning for (1871–1888), 51–53, 122;
offensive vs. defensive orientation, 63–65, 68–69, 79;
politics and, 18;
Schlieffen deployment planning for, 79–83, 319n46;
space/time considerations, 58–59;
West Germany and, 266;
during WWI, 101, 327n40
“Über die militärpolitische Lage” (Moltke the Elder), 43
“Über Marschtiefen” (Moltke the Elder), 35
Über Strategie (Moltke the Elder), 12, 28
U-boats, 124
Ukraine, 206
United States, 292;
as British ally, 205;
Civil War (1861–1865), 62;
conventional war planning of, 293;
Desert Storm, 1;
NATO role of, 286;
nuclear monopoly of, 272;
nuclear strategy of, 300–301;
Operation BARBAROSSA and, 221, 247;
post-WWI operational thinking of, 269, 270–71;
war games in, 288;
West German rearmament as viewed by, 263;
WWI entered by, 125, 129;
WWI entered by, 221–22
United States Air Force, 271, 288
United States Army, 62, 260, 288, 346n102
United States Army Command and General Staff College (Ft. Leavenworth, KS), 5
Ural Mountains, 206
urban fighting, 222
Vardi, Gil-li, 151
Venturini, Georg, 14
(p.422) Verdun (France), 58, 80, 81, 83
Verdun, Battle of (1916), 114, 116, 123–24
Verdy du Vernois, Julius von, 43, 45
Verlorene Siegen (Manstein), 260
Verordnungen für die höheren Truppenführer, 7, 34
Versailles, Treaty of (1871), 31
Versailles, Treaty of (1919):
cavalry divisions allowed by, 143, 332n15;
economic sanctions in, 183;
German Great Power aspirations and, 142;
Locarno Treaty and, 157;
military framework of, 138–39;
military restrictions due to, 138, 141, 159, 164, 183, 332n15;
repudiation of, 141, 180;
senior-level organizational provisions, 178;
territorial losses from, 19, 183
“Verteidigung Westeuropas 1949/50, Die” (memorandum; Heusinger), 267
Verwundetenabzeichen medals, 352n195
Vietnam War, 301
Volksgrenadier divisions, 232
Vom Kriege (Clausewitz), 11–12, 17, 28
Voronezh (Soviet Union), 221
Voronezh, Battle of (1943), 244–45
Waffen-SS (Germany), 254
Wagner, Eduard, 216, 241, 251
Waldersee, Alfred von, 43, 50, 53, 59, 79
Wallach, Jehuda L., 68, 70, 71, 84, 91, 185, 323n138, 331n7
Walter, Dierk, 32, 48
war crimes trials, 260
war games:
during interwar period, 109, 154, 155–57, 158, 159, 185;
post-WWI, 287–88, 293;
in Prussian General Staff system, 39;
under Schlieffen, 67, 80–81, 87, 90–92, 95, 318n40;
two-front war and, 91–92;
of Wehrmacht, 174, 175, 178, 335nn78–79, 337n119;
WWI and, 109
War History Research Institute, 5, 134, 261
War Plan XVI, 322n123
Warsaw (Poland), 192, 195
Warsaw Pact, 262, 272
Warsaw Uprising (1944), 234 map, 235
Wars of Liberation, 29, 32, 45, 73, 120
Waterloo, Battle of (1815), 23–24
weapons tactics, 13–14
Wegner, Bernd, 2, 222, 260
Wehler, Hans-Ulrich, 315n60
Wehrmacht:
absolute war theory adopted by, 162;
annihilation strategy of, 72;
battle group structure in, 281;
Blomberg as commander-in-chief of, 178;
Bundeswehr leadership as former officers in, 263–65, 291, 300, 355–56n21;
coordination within, 186–87, 302;
Eastern Front criminal activity of, 249, 265, 306, 354n231 (Ch. 7), 354n2 (Ch. 8);
establishment of, 163;
France Campaign (1940), 202–3;
Hitler as commander-in-chief of, 181–82, 187, 299;
initiative lost by, 222–23, 231;
justice system of, 353n226;
KVP leadership as former officers in, 271–72;
military buildup of, 185–86, 196–98, 204, 253;
mobile command-and-control system of, 235–36;
mobile warfare of, 155;
motorization rate in, 216, 254;
mythology surrounding, 290, 354n2;
National Socialist state and, 237, 265, 299, 302–3, 314n51;
North African Campaign (1940–1943), 222–23;
Operation BARBAROSSA, 345n81;
Poland Campaign (1939), 194–98;
post-WWI reappraisal of, 259–62;
purpose of, 174;
record availability for, 5;
Reichswehr becomes, 174;
senior-level organizational conflict and, 178–83, 186–87, 340n180;
surrender (p.423) of (1945), 189, 259, 290;
training deficiencies of, 204;
war games of, 156, 174, 337n119
Wehrmacht Academy, 138, 166, 167, 181
Wehrmachtamt (Armed Forces Office), 181, 182
Wehrmachtausstellung (Exhibitions Focusing on War Crimes of the Wehrmacht), 354n2
Wehrmacht General Staff, 181, 182, 271
Wehrmacht High Command (Oberkommando der Wehrmacht; OKW), 181;
Army General Staff vs., 186–87;
censorship by, 191;
Economic Staff, 209;
Hitler and, 237–38;
Keitel as chief of, 207;
National Defense Department, 238;
OKH vs., 182–83, 209, 256;
Operation BARBAROSSA, 206, 209, 210–11, 247–48, 256
Wehrmacht Operations Staff, 178, 182
Wehrmacht Replacement Army, 207
Wehrwissenschaftliche Rundschau (post-WWI military periodical), 355n11
Weimarer Brockhaus (1932), 10
Weimar Germany:
planning/training in, 154–62;
rearmament of, 148, 154, 297, 337n112;
Soviet military cooperation with, 141, 273–74;
Stülpnagel’s call for authoritarian state in, 149–50, 151–52;
war concepts debate in, 139–54, 183–85;
WWI defeat debated in, 133–39, 290
Weisung für die einheitliche Kriegsvorbereitung der Wehrmacht (directive), 175–76
Weizsäcker, Richard von, 259
Western Zones of Occupation, 262
Westkrieg war game, 154
Wetzell, Georg, 134, 331n9
Wilhelm I (King of Prussia;
Kaiser of Germany), 43;
as prince regent, 32, 33, 36;
Waldersee dismissed by, 43
Wilhelm I (Kaiser of Germany), 126;
ascension of, 68;
Battle of Tannenberg as viewed by, 109;
Central Powers offensive (1915) and, 113;
as commander-in-chief, 78, 105, 132, 326n32;
at Kaiser Maneuvers, 106;
Moltke the Younger appointed General Staff chief by, 105–8;
post-WWI exile of, 139–40;
Romania Campaign (1916–1917) and, 116, 328n52;
WWI structural leadership deficiencies and, 105–8, 110, 128, 326nn32–33
winter studies, 155–57
“Without Me” movement (Ohne-mich-Bewegung), 276
Wolf, Eugen, 19
World War I:
Armistice declared in (1918), 129, 189;
casualties in, 129, 330n96;
Eastern Front during initial weeks of, 101–3;
force sizes during, 24;
geographical dimensions of, 118;
German atrocities committed during, 104, 325–26n27;
German defeat in, 290;
German geostrategic position following defeat in, 19;
German mobilization for, 100;
German war plan for, 16, 57, 94, 253;
Hitler’s military career during, 240;
industrialization of, 139;
interservice rivalries during, 132;
logistical problems during, 130–32, 198–99, 322n117;
mobile warfare during, 168, 173–74, 345n88;
morale appeals during, 235;
motorization rates during, 87–89, 253–54, 330n91, 345–46n94;
mythology surrounding, 57;
patriotic education during, 299;
postwar debate over German defeat in, 133–39, 166, 178, 184, 331–32nn9–10, 332n13;
as preemptive war, 49–50;
Russian offensive during, 100;
Russian withdrawal from, 124–25;
space/ (p.424) time compression during, 21, 38, 223;
trench warfare during, 119, 122, 130, 191, 226, 240, 255, 297;
US entrance into, 125, 129;
Verwundetenabzeichen during, 352n195;
as war of attrition, 191–92;
Western Front during initial weeks of, 99–101
World War I—BATTLES/CAMPAIGNS:
Brusilov offensive (1916), 116, 118, 328n54, 329n67;
Central Powers offensive (1915), 113–15, 132;
Frontiers (1914), 100, 103;
Galicia (1914), 102–3, 113;
Gorlice-Tarnów Offensive (1915), 113, 123;
Liège (1914), 16, 100;
Łódź (1914), 109;
maps, pls. 3–8;
Masurian Lakes (1914), 109;
“Race to the Sea” (1914), 100;
Romania Campaign (1916–1917), 113, 115–18, 132, 328n52;
Somme (1916), 119;
St. Quentin (1918), 126–28;
World War I—GERMAN OPERATIONAL failures during:
Central Powers offensive (1915) and, 113–15;
command/control deficiencies, 104–5;
Eastern Front maneuvers, 110–19, 111 map;
Eastern vs. Western Front situations, 108–10, 117–18;
lessons learned from, 296–300;
logistical problems, 345–46n94;
post-WWI avoidance of, 133–39;
Romania Campaign (1916–1917) and, 115–18;
strategic center of gravity decisions, 110–13;
structural leadership deficiencies, 105–8, 110, 326nn32–33;
surprise lacking, 103–4;
technology and, 88;
Western Front breakthrough attempts, 119–28
World War II:
beginning of, 189, 195;
Blitzkrieg concept at beginning of, 186;
British entrance into (1939), 196, 341n14;
German defeat in, 189, 246, 256–57, 259–60, 290, 300;
German geostrategic position following defeat in, 19–20;
German senior-level political-military organization lacking during, 183;
German war plan for, 192, 196, 253;
Great Power politics and, 189;
lessons learned from defeat in, 297–300;
logistical problems during, 198–99;
mobile warfare during, 147;
Reich Archive destroyed during, 27–28, 67;
Schlieffen Plan reversed during, 195–96, 197 map;
training during, 198;
Verwundetenabzeichen during, 352n195;
as war of annihilation, 259
World War II—BATTLES/CAMPAIGNS:
Ardennes Offensive (1944), 231, 236, 244;
Balkans Campaign (1941), 210, 211;
Bialystok-Minsk (1941), 217, 346n107;
Britain (1940), 204;
Crimean Campaign (1941–1942), 222;
Denmark conquest (1940), 189;
El Alamein (1942), 223;
Hungary Offensive (1944–1945), 237;
Kharkov (1941), 222;
Kharkov (1943), 230, 245;
Kiev (1941), 219;
Kursk (1943), 231, 244;
Leningrad Siege (1941–1944), 219, 251–52;
maps, pls. 9–16;
Moscow (1941–1942), 48, 220, 239, 346n103;
Normandy invasion (1944), 236;
North African Campaign (1940–1943), 222–23, 225, 229, 244;
Norway conquest (1940), 189, 253;
Sedan (1940), 201–2, 204;
Seelow Heights (1945), 350n167;
Smolensk (1941), 218, 346n108;
Stalingrad (1942–1943), 222, 225, 243, 244–45;
Tobruk (1942),229;
Voronezh (1943), 244–45;
Warsaw Uprising (1944), 234
Yom Kippur War (1973), 301
Z.Dv. 1/4 (Richtlinien für die obere Führung), 359n79
Zeitzler, Kurt, 239–40, 242, 261
Zenker, Hans, 137
Zenker, Karl-Adolf, 356n21
Zeppelins, 89
Zhukov, Georgy Konstantinovich, 345n88
Zuber, Terence, 57, 67