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Wars of Modern BabylonA History of the Iraqi Army from 1921 to 2003$
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Pesach Malovany

Print publication date: 2017

Print ISBN-13: 9780813169439

Published to Kentucky Scholarship Online: January 2018

DOI: 10.5810/kentucky/9780813169439.001.0001

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Introduction to the Victory Battles (January–April 1988)

Introduction to the Victory Battles (January–April 1988)

The Initiative Returns to Iraqi Hands

(p.367) Chapter 20 Introduction to the Victory Battles (January–April 1988)
Wars of Modern Babylon

Pesach Malovany IDF (Ret.)

Amatzia Baram

Kevin M. Woods

Ronna Englesberg

University Press of Kentucky

This chapter deals with the first three month of 1988, one of the most complex periods of the prolonged war. Both sides concentrated on the northern front in mountainous Kurdistan, with the increasing involvement of opposition factions from both sides. Iraq activated “Mujahedin Khalk” forces on Iranian soil, while Iran involved Kurdish opposition and “Badr-9” opposition forces, which brought the Iraqi Army to mount punitive activities against the Kurdish opposition. To these were added the chemical attack on Halabja, which was a high point in the use of unconventional weapons in that war by the Iraqis. The Iraqi Air Force continued attacking targets in Iran, culminating in the most intensive phase of the “war of the cities,” during which the Iraqis implemented their new long-range “Al-Hussein” missiles for the first time. Above all, Iraq covertly continued its preparations for the liberation battles that would cause it to emerge victorious from the war.

Keywords:   Iranian initiatives, Iraqi initiatives, Kurdistan, 1st Corps, Mujahidin Khalk, Badr-9 force, Kurdish opposition, Chemical attack on Halabja, Iraqi air force operations, Surface to Surface missiles war

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