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The GulfThe Bush Presidencies and the Middle East$
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Michael F. Cairo

Print publication date: 2012

Print ISBN-13: 9780813136721

Published to Kentucky Scholarship Online: January 2013

DOI: 10.5810/kentucky/9780813136721.001.0001

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(p.1) Introduction
The Gulf

Michael F. Cairo

University Press of Kentucky

This chapter introduces “enlightened” realism and “cowboy” liberalism, making the case for studying presidential worldviews, particularly with the Bush administrations, and then examines the particular worldviews of George H.W. Bush and George W. Bush. Throughout the chapter argues that different emphases within the realist and liberal models combined to create the “enlightened” realist and “cowboy” liberal worldviews. Thus, George H.W. Bush’s risk-averse approach and emphasis on international institutions and multilateral processes combine to create the “enlightened” realist view, while George W. Bush’s risk-acceptant approach and emphasis on the importance of the democratic mission in American foreign policy combine to create the “cowboy” liberal view. The chapter concludes by briefly laying out the cases for further analysis: the wars in Iraq and the Middle East peace process.

Keywords:   “Enlightened” realism, “Cowboy” liberalism, Realism, Liberalism, Worldview

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