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North Korean Military Proliferation in the Middle East and AfricaEnabling Violence and Instability$
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Bruce E. Bechtol Jr.

Print publication date: 2018

Print ISBN-13: 9780813175881

Published to Kentucky Scholarship Online: January 2019

DOI: 10.5810/kentucky/9780813175881.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM KENTUCKY SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.kentucky.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright The University Press of Kentucky, 2020. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in KSO for personal use.date: 29 March 2020

How Do They Do It?

How Do They Do It?

North Korea’s Illicit Financial Networks and Proliferation Modus Operandi

(p.45) 3 How Do They Do It?
North Korean Military Proliferation in the Middle East and Africa

Bruce E. Bechtol Jr.

University Press of Kentucky

North Korea has always been able to get around sanctions using some very clever tactics, techniques, and procedures (TTP) for getting its arms distributed. This has been an ongoing situation no matter what sanctions are imposed or the methods used to impose them. The North Koreans are constantly changing their TTP in order to adjust to the complex international law enforcement environment, and two key examples (combining illicit arms with legitimate cargo in containers placed on ships and then reflagging the ships) point to the fact that they are adjusting their TTP in order to adapt to sanctions, avoid detection by maritime forces of other nations, and stay below the radar of law enforcement around the world, which is often very wary of shipments tagged as North Korean. There are several other methods that North Korea uses to get around sanctions and conceal its illicit financial networks as well (all described in chapter 3). Thus far, it appears that these methods have been largely successful, and I examine in detail how the DPRK uses its government powers to get around sanctions and proliferate its arms for profit.

Keywords:   North Korea, weapons of mass destruction, proliferation, sanctions, illicit networks, illegal banking

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