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The Struggle Is EternalGloria Richardson and Black Liberation$
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Joseph R. Fitzgerald

Print publication date: 2018

Print ISBN-13: 9780813176499

Published to Kentucky Scholarship Online: May 2019

DOI: 10.5810/kentucky/9780813176499.001.0001

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(p.171) 9 Vanguard
The Struggle Is Eternal

Joseph R. Fitzgerald

University Press of Kentucky

Richardson’s influence on the development of Black Power through ACT, an organization she cofounded with other radical activists in 1964, is the focus of this chapter. ACT’s goal was to provide aid and comfort to northern urban freedom campaigns, much as SNCC had done for local movements in the South. The chapter also analyzes ACT’s effect on the black liberation movement, particularly how it fostered the rise of militancy among younger activists who challenged moderates’ power to determine the civil rights movement’s goals, strategies, and tactics. Also covered is Richardson’s personal and working relationship with Malcolm X, who served as a consultant to ACT and was influenced by Richardson, as evidenced by his “ballot or bullet” speeches. Finally, the chapter discusses Richardson’s reasons for ending her active participation in the black liberation movement.

Keywords:   ACT, ballot or bullet, Black Power, Malcolm X, moderates, radicals

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