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Subordinating IntelligenceThe DoD/CIA Post-Cold War Relationship$
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David P. Oakley

Print publication date: 2019

Print ISBN-13: 9780813176703

Published to Kentucky Scholarship Online: September 2019

DOI: 10.5810/kentucky/9780813176703.001.0001

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Change on the Horizon

Change on the Horizon

(p.12) 1 Change on the Horizon
Subordinating Intelligence

David P. Oakley

University Press of Kentucky

By taking the first steps to weaken the powerful military services and establishing a unified DoD, the Goldwater-Nichols Act of 1986 increased the DoD’s influence in US foreign policy while also creating policy and structure that enabled and required future DoD/CIA collaboration. The failures in the field that motivated defense reform were the same failures that initiated discussions on intelligence support to military operations. Reviews of Operation Urgent Fury and the Beirut barracks bombing criticized the lack of intelligence support to commanders. In this regard, the defense reform enacted by Congress through Goldwater-Nichols was the initial phase of broader national security reforms. Although intelligence reform was initially not embraced to the same degree as defense reform, policy makers, motivated by perceived “intelligence failures,” looked to restructure intelligence for a post–Cold War environment.

Keywords:   joint operations, Goldwater-Nichols Act, Panama, Beirut, Operation Urgent Fury, transformation, Cold War, intelligence failure

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